60-Second Civics Print E-mail

Sunday, January 22
Daily civics quiz


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What did the 1833 court case Baron v. Baltimore conclude?

a. the Bill of Rights must be enforced at the state level
b. the Bill of Rights applies only to the national government
c. the Bill of Rights cannot be altered
d. the Bill of Rights only applies to citizens

About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

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Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent Pretending," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


60-Second Civics: Episode 2773, A Nauseous Project
Though we take it for granted today, the Bill of Rights presented many challengers to our Founders.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2772, The Constitution As a Bill of Rights
In addition to amendments, the Constitution itself was written to protect certain freedoms.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2771, Third Amendment
The Third Amendment ensures that soldiers won't be quartered in civilian homes during peacetime.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2770, Second Amendment
How the Second Amendment continues to be interpreted in many ways.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2769, Positive and Negative Rights
These categories of rights determine whether the government must act or be restricted.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2768, Economic and Political Rights
The right to own property, to work, and to be civically engaged.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2767, Personal Rights
Understanding our freedom to think, act, and speak as we choose.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2766, Rights
What does it mean to have rights? Where do our rights come from?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2765, State Bills of Rights
How each state developed its own constitution and bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2764, Limitations on Government in the Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights was a trailblazing document that informed our Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2763, The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Virginia was the first state to include a bill of rights in its constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2762, Ordinary Legislation vs. a Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights of 1689 is important for understanding the evolution of bills of rights in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2761, Early Documents That Established Rights
Before the U.S. Bill of Rights, there were a few other documents that helped pave the way for the protection of individual liberties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2760, The Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments
These final pieces of the Bill of Rights deal with crime, punishment, and states rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2759, The Sixth and Seventh Amendments
Your right to an attorney, a fair trial, and more in these two amendments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2758, The Fourth and Fifth Amendments
These Constitutional Amendments help protect the rights of those convicted of a crime
60-Second Civics: Episode 2757, The First Three Amendments
These three Constitutional amendments protect some of our most fundamental rights as citizens.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2756, The Bill of Rights
What is included in the Bill of Rights and how does it protect our individual liberties?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2755, State Action on Climate Change
How are the states reacting to climate change and implementing environmental policy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2754, Referendum and Recall
These two processes can create new laws, and remove elected officials from power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2753, Ballot Initiatives
Initiative, referendum, recall are a trio of methods, begun during the Progressive era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which allow citizens to participate in direct democracy in their states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2752, Laboratories of Democracy
How state laws can break new ground for country-wide change.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2751, Johnson vs. Nixon
How these two mid-century presidents changed the relationship between federal and local spending.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2750, How the Depression Changed Government
The Great Depression changed the relationship between the federal government and state governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2749, Grants in Aid
How federal and state cooperation raised funds and moved the U.S. capital.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2748, Interstate Commerce and Drug Policy
How federal and local authorities conflict over commerce and drug regulations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2747, Regulation of Commerce
Regulation of commerce cases demonstrate the kinds of issues that are common in America's system of shared governmental authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2746, State Constitutional Amendments
State constitutional amendments often reflect state responses to policy debates occurring throughout the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2745, State Constitutions
Since the first state constitutions were adopted in 1776, state constitutional conventions have resulted in new constitutions being adopted some 144 times.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2744, Home Rule
From the Gilded Age to Dillon's Rule: How local governments have changed over time.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2743, Municipal Governments
There are three broad categories of local governments in the United States: Counties, municipalities, and special districts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2742, County Governments
State constitutions give legislatures power to create local governments, which receive charters, or grants of authority, to carry out a wide range of governmental responsibilities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2741, Lieutenant Governors
Lieutenant governors have been considered the fifth wheel of American politics. In reality, they have important responsibilities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2740, State Executive and Legislative Branches
Learn about the executive and legislative branches of state government on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2739, State Legislatures
Every state has executive, legislative and judicial branches.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2738, State Bills of Rights
State constitutions have a lot in common.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2737, The Police Powers of States
Learn about the police powers of states on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2736, Police Powers Explained
What are the police powers of a state? Hint: they involve more than policing.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2735, States Play an Important Role
States play an important role in the structure and operation of the U.S. government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2734, States and the National Government
State governments and reserved powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2733, Changing the Size of the Supreme Court
Congress can change the size of the Supreme Court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2732, Kelo v. New London
Kelo v. New London and eminent domain.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2731, Five Rules of Justiciability
Do you know the five rules of justiciability? You will after this podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2730, Limiting the Role of Judges
The Framers of the Constitution wanted federal courts to have limited jurisdiction.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2729, Congress and States Check the Supreme Court
Both Congress and the states can check the power of the Supreme Court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2728, Presidents and Enforcement of Supreme Court Decisions
Sometimes, presidents balk at having to enforce Supreme Court decisions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2727, Presidential Influence Over the Supreme Court
How do Supreme Court justices get nominated? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2726, Limits on the Power of the Supreme Court
Are there limits on the power of the Supreme Court? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2725, Fundamental Principles and Modernism
Today we look at the fundamental principles and modernism approaches to constitutional interpretation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2724, Strict Construction and Original Intent
Today we examine the strict construction and original intent methods of constitutional interpretation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2723, Written Opinions of the Supreme Court
Today we learn about the function of written opinions of the Supreme Court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2722, Debate Over Interpretation
Scalia and Breyer's views on how the Constitution should be interpreted.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2721, Writs of Certiorari
What is a writ of certiorari? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2720, Appellate Jurisdiction
Do you know the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2719, Original and Appellate Jurisdiction
Learn about the appellate and original jurisdiction on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2718, Federal Courts
Today we present a one-minute overview the powers of federal courts under Article III of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2717, The Public as Watchdogs
The public can serve as watchdogs of administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2716, Courts and Federalism Check Administrative Agencies
The courts and our federal system check the power of administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2715, Congressional Oversight of Administrative Agencies
The president has appointment powers, but Congress has the power to oversee administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2714, Checks on the Powers of Administrative Agencies
Today we learn about checks on the power of administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2713, Patronage vs. Civil Service
In general, public employees can't be fired for refusing to support the political party in power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2712, Political Appointees
Political appointees are a powerful resource for incoming presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2711, Civil Service Reform
The civil service system has been reformed several times.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2710, Creation of the Civil Service
How was the civil service created? The answer might surprise you.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2709, Bureaucracy
More on the bureaucracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2708, Expanding and Contracting Bureaucracy
Sometimes, the bureaucracy shrinks. Learn about the expanding and shrinking of federal agencies on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2707, The Growth of Bureaucracy
What has caused the federal bureaucracy to grow over time? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2706, Limits on the Power of Administrative Agencies
Administrative agencies are powerful, but their power is limited. Find out how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2705, Powerful Administrative Agencies
Administrative agencies are powerful. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2704, Independent Agencies
Independent Agencies created by Congress have quasi-legislative and judicial powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2703, Executive Office of the President
What is the Executive Office of the President? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2702, Executive Departments
Today we begin our exploration of the national bureaucracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2701, Administrative Agencies
Today we begin our series on the administrative agencies of the federal government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2700, The President and America's Reputation
Why is the president the preeminent figure in domestic and international politics? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2699, Congress and the Presidency
What happens if there is a tie in the Electoral College? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2698, The Electoral College
Just in time for election day! How the Electoral College works.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2697, Differences Between Parliament and Congress
There are critical differences between Parliament and Congress. Learn what these are on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2696, Parliament and the Prime Minister
How do Parliament and the prime minister differ from the American system? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2695, Congress and the Supreme Court Limit the President
Congress, the Supreme Court, and public opinion limit the power of the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2694, Congress Can Limit a President's Power
Congress has a number of ways to limit the power of presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2693, Checks and Balances on the President's Power
The president's power is limited. Learn how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2692, Executive Orders
Why have executive orders increased in recent years? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2691, Recommending Legislation to Congress
Find out about the president's role in lawmaking on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2690, Wanted: A Strong President
Americans want their presidents to be strong, but tend to distrust activist presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2689, The Balance of Power
Can Congress and the Supreme Court reign in the power of the president? You bet.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2688, Congress and the Court reign in the president
Can Congress and the Supreme Court reign in the power of the president? You bet.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2687, Presidential Power in Emergency and Crisis
What does the Constitution say about presidential powers during emergencies or crisis? The answer may surprise you.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2686, Wars, Emergencies, and FDR
With the support of Congress, FDR responded to the multiple crises that occurred during his administration.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2685, Diplomat in Chief
How is the president America's diplomat in chief? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2684, The President and Treaties
The president can make treaties with the approval of two-thirds of the Senate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2683, The President As Commander in Chief
The president is commander in chief, but only Congress can declare war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2682, The President and Foreign Affairs
The president's power is at its greatest when it comes to foreign affairs.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2681, The President As Leader in Foreign Policy
The president has a number of important powers, but the president's powers are limited in important ways.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2680, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Find out why Franklin D. Roosevelt was arguably the most influential president of the 20th century.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2679, Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Wilson
Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Wilson each contributed to the growth of presidential power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2678, Jefferson and the Use of Presidential Power
Thomas Jefferson sought to be a model of republican simplicity.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2677, The Rise of Presidential Power
Some scholars trace the rise of the powerful modern presidency to Andrew Jackson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2676, A Strong President, But Not Too Strong
The Framers of the Constitution wanted the president to be strong, but not too strong.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2675, Above Partisan Politics
The Framers of the Constitution expected presidents to be above partisan bickering. It didn't work out that way.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2674, A President's Inherent Powers
Today: some controversial inherent powers of presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2673, Presidential Power and the Courts
Today we learn about Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson's opinion in Youngstown Sheet vs. Sawyer.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2672, Presidential powers
Learn about some of the president's powers on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2671, Examples of impeachment
Seventeen national officers have been impeached since 1792.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2670, Impeachment
Any member of the House can initiate impeachment proceedings, but two-thirds of the Senate is required for removal from office.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2669, Investigations and the balance of power
Congress uses its powers of investigation most frequently when the majority are of a different party than the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2668, The power to investigate
Congress has conducted hundreds of investigations since 1792.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2667, The authority of Congress to conduct investigations
Even though it's not mentioned in the Constitution, Congress has the authority to carry out investigations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2666, Lobbying
Is lobbying dangerous for democracy? Learn about lobbying on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2665, The role of constituents
Constituents play a vital role in American government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2664, The executive branch as a source for laws
The president has the constitutional authority to recommend measures for congressional consideration.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2663, Ideas for legislation
There is no shortage of sources of ideas for legislation available to members of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2662, Congress and individual rights
Today we learn about the role of Congress in protecting individual rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2661, Lawmaking, Part 5: Persistence and compromise
Lawmaking requires compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2660, Lawmaking, Part 4: Conference committees and the veto
What happens when the House and Senate versions differ? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2659, Lawmaking, Part 3: The committee vote
What happens when a bill is passed by one chamber of Congress? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2658, Lawmaking, Part 2: Mark-up sessions
How do congressional committees work? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2657, Lawmaking, Part 1: Introducing a bill
Today we begin a brief series on how laws are made.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2656, Bills and resolutions
Today on the podcast: simple, joint, and concurrent resolutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2655, President pro tempore
Today we learn about the president pro tempore of the Senate and the majority whip of the House.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2654, Senate leadership
Today we learn about the vice president's role in the Senate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2653, Office of Speaker in England and America
Today we contrast the speaker of the House of Commons with that of the House of Representatives.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2652, Leadership in the House vs. the Senate
The House and Senate have a different leadership structure.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2651, A powerful Speaker of the House
The Speaker of the House is a powerful position.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2650, Influence of political parties on Congress
Political parties have sway in Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2649, Senate rules
The Senate has rules, too. Learn about some of these on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2648, Rules for House committees
Rules, rules, rules. Your mom has them, your school has them, even the House of Representatives has them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2647, The purpose of congressional committees
The careful, deliberative work of Congress often occurs during committee meetings.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2646, Congressional committees
Today we start our series on how Congress performs its functions in the American constitutional system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2645, Casework and legislation
On today's podcast, we learn how members of Congress serve the public.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2644, Communication with constituents
According to C-SPAN, there are 570 official congressional Twitter accounts. Do you follow your members of Congress?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2643, Delegate vs. trustee theory of representation
Today on the podcast: the delegate vs. trustee theory of representation
60-Second Civics: Episode 2642, The size of Congress
How large is the U.S. Congress compared to other national legislatures? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2641, Congress composed of 535 legislators
Today we learn about the size of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2640, Gerrymandering
Today, it's everyone's least favorite political practice: gerrymandering.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2639, One person, one vote
Today we learn about the one person, one vote rule.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2638, Legislative districts
What can you do if you don't like the way your congressional district is drawn? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2637, Congress represents the people and the states.
Both the people and the states have a voice in Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2636, Inherent powers
The power to conduct investigations and compel testimony goes back to Parliament and the colonial legislatures.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2635, Enforcement powers
The enforcement powers of Congress have been used to enact sweeping civil rights, voting rights, and voting laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2634, Necessary and proper
The necessary and proper clause was controversial from the start.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2633, Congress and administrative agencies
Congress can both create and oversee administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2632, Implied powers of Congress
Today on 60-Second Civics, McCulloch v. Maryland and the implied powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2631, More enumerated powers of Congress
Today on the podcast, more enumerated powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2630, Enumerated powers of Congress
Today we learn about enumerated powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2629, How the Bill of Rights limits Congress
On today's episode, learn two ways that the Bill of Rights limits Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2628, How the Framers limited the power of Congress
The Framers of the Constitution mistrusted concentrations of power in government, so they sought to limit the power of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2627, Federalism in the United States
Congress is not only legislature in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2626, Lengths of terms of parliamentarians and members of Congress
Elections to the UK Parliament can occur at irregular intervals, but members of Congress are elected at regular intervals.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2625, Congress is one of three coequal branches
Congress is one of three coequal branches of the U.S. government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2624, Parliamentary government prohibited
The Constitution forbids establishment of a parliamentary system for the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2623, Congress vs. Parliament
Today we compare Congress with Parliament.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2622, The House of Commons
Today we learn about the House of Commons.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2621, The House of Lords
Today we learn about the House of Lords.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2620, Twenty-sixth Amendment
The Twenty-sixth Amendment lowered the voting age to 18.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2619, Removing obstacles to Native American voting
Native Americans were often deprived of their right to vote until Congress took action.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2618, Native American voters
In several states, Native Americans are viewed as an increasingly important voting bloc.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2617, Native American citizenship
Throughout most of the first two hundred years of the United States, Native Americans were denied American citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2616, Native American and citizenship
The Framers considered Native Americans to be members of their tribes, not citizens of the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2615, The Nineteenth Amendment
The Nineteenth Amendment was finally adopted in 1920.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2614, The slow march to woman suffrage
Women in the United States gained the right to vote in small increments. Plenty of excuses were offered for not recognizing women's right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2613, Suffrage for women in the states
Even though the federal government was slow to recognize the right of women to vote, states like Wyoming took matters into their own hands.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2612, The long road to equal voting rights for women
The road to winning the right to vote for women was long, and suffragists faced many setbacks.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2611, Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
Today we learn about the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2610, Literacy tests
Literacy tests were designed to disenfranchise African American voters. They did not disappear entirely until 1970.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2609, Poll taxes
Poll taxes were meant to keep the poor and minorities from voting. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment ended poll taxes in 1964.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2608, Civil Rights Act of 1868
Until discriminatory laws and Supreme Court rulings took effect, millions of African Americans were added to the voting rolls, and some were elected to public office.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2607, Fifteenth Amendment
In theory, the Fifteenth Amendment granted the right to vote to African American men. But discriminatory laws kept African Americans from exercising that right.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2606, Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
Mexican American men faced discrimination and violence in Texas when they tried to exercise their right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2605, Dorr Rebellion
What was the Dorr Rebellion? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2604, Voting reform
Voting reform took place slowly after 1790.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2603, Property requirements
Suffrage in the original thirteen states expanded greatly after 1790.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2602, Voting and property
Thomas Paine, with his characteristically sharp wit, pointing out some problems with the property requirement for voting.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2601, Enfranchisement and disenfranchisement
Who was allowed to vote in after the Revolution? It depended on where you lived.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2600, Voting in the colonies
What legacy of Greek and Roman democracy did the colonists inherit? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2599, Expansion of suffrage
How did the right to vote gradually expand in the United States? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2598, Controversy over equal protection
Today we examine some of the controversies surrounding equal protection.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2597, Rational basis
What is rational basis? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2596, Intermediate scrutiny
Today we discuss intermediate scrutiny and how it applies to gender-based distinctions in the law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2595, Strict scrutiny
Strict scrutiny is the highest level of analysis used by the Supreme Court to determine whether equal protection has been violated.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2594, Equal protection today
How does the Supreme Court decide whether a law violates equal protection?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2593, Kenneth and Mamie Clark
Kenneth and Mamie Clark's research showed the severe and damaging psychological effects of segregation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2592, Brown vs. Board of Education
In 1953 the Supreme Court found that "the doctrine of separate but equal has no place."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2591, The NAACP
How did the NAACP help to end segregation in education? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2590, Jim Crow laws
What were Jim Crow laws? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2589, Equal protection and equal opportunity
What does equal protection of the laws mean? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2588, Arbitrary barriers to rights
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment protects you from arbitrary infringement of your rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2587, The equal protection clause
Equal protection of the laws is rooted in the Declaration's statement that "all Men are created equal."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2586, Incorporation of criminal procedures
Why has the Supreme Court been reluctant to incorporate criminal procedural guarantees? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2585, Selective incorporation
What is selective incorporation? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2584, Gitlow vs. New York
Today we explore Gitlow vs. New York, the 1925 freedom of expression case.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2583, Interpreting due process
In the twentieth century, the Court began the process of incorporating the Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2582, Fundamental rights recognized by the courts
The states must show they have a compelling interest in order to regulate certain fundamental rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2581, The courts and fundamental rights
How do the courts deal with issues of fundamental rights? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2580, Substantive due process
Today on the podcast we learn about substantive due process.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2579, Comparing the adversarial and inquisitorial systems
Which is better, the adversarial or inquisitorial system of justice? Learn the arguments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2578, The fight theory of justice
What is the fight theory of justice? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2577, Beyond a reasonable doubt
In the American and English systems of justice, criminal defendants do not have to prove their innocence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2576, Adversarial vs. inquisitorial systems of justice
Today we examine the adversarial and inquisitorial systems of justice.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2575, Examples of due process
What does due process of law mean? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2574, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments and due process
Today we delve into due process and procedural due process.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2573, Due process of law
Due process of law is both an ancient and evolving concept.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2572, Discriminatory laws
Discriminatory laws aimed at reducing the political power of African Americans sowed the seeds of the civil rights movement.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2571, The Fifteenth Amendment
The Civil War amendments were not enough to protect the rights of African Americans.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2570, Black Codes
Learn about the Black Codes on today's podcast and how the country responded.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2569, How the country changed after the Civil War
The Civil War and the Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery. The war resolved many other issues as well.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2568, The Emancipation Proclamation and presidential power
Not everyone was happy with the Emancipation Proclamation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2567, The Emancipation Proclamation
Abraham Lincoln used emancipation as a weapon of war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2566, Lincoln asserts his authority
Lincoln ignored the Supreme Court's ruling on habeas corpus, and Congress backed him up with legislation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2565, Taney vs. Lincoln
The chief justice of the Supreme Court and President Lincoln squared off over Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2564, Too strong or too weak?
Abraham Lincoln had to simultaneously exercise and limit his powers during the Civil War to preserve the Union and the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2563, Congress approves Lincoln's actions
Lincoln acted to aggressively counter secession; Congress supported him.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2562, Unprecedented presidential powers
President Lincoln exercised unprecedented presidential powers during wartime.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2561, Slavery and the Confederate constitution
The Confederates wrote a constitution based on the U.S. Constitution, but protected slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2560, The philosophy behind the Confederacy
The Confederates believed they were fighting a second American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2559, Lincoln and the start of the Civil War
The Civil War begins, and Lincoln responds quickly.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2558, Abraham Lincoln and secession
Abraham Lincoln's election prompted eleven Southern states to secede.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2557, Taney and the Dred Scott decision
Chief Justice Taney hoped his ruling in Dred Scott would resolve the slavery issue peacefully. It did the opposite.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2556, The reasoning behind the Dred Scott decision
In the infamous Supreme Court decision of Dred Scott v. Sandford, the Court held that African Americans were not citizens.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2555, The Dred Scott decision
Dred Scott sued for his freedom in a Supreme Court case that inflamed opinions on both sides of the slavery debate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2554, Free soil and fugitive slaves
California was admitted to the Union as a state that banned slavery, but the South got a stronger Fugitive Slave Act in return.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2553, The aftermath of the Mexican-American War
How did California's statehood affect slavery in the United States? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2552, Admitting slave and free states
The Missouri Compromise kept the balance between the free and slave states for sixty years.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2551, The divisive issue of slavery
Abolitionists asserted that the Framers of the Constitution were ashamed of slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2550, Slavery in the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution sought to avoid the issue of slavery during the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2549, What's wrong with the party system?
What's wrong with the political party system today?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2548, Purposes of political parties
Political parties can give people a sense of organized participation in government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2547, Purposes of political parties today
What is the purpose of political parties today? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2546, Political parties as additional checks and balances
Martin Van Buren thought that political parties provided an additional set of checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2545, Advantages of political parties
Martin Van Buren identified several advantages of political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2544, Martin Van Buren on political parties
Martin Van Buren and Thomas Jefferson had differing views about the role of political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2543, The Twelfth Amendment
The Twelfth Amendment gave political parties an ongoing role in American politics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2542, The Twelfth Amendment
The Constitution originally gave the vice presidency to the second-place finisher in a presidential election.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2541, The election of 1800
Why was it called the "revolution of 1800?" Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2540, The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts gave the president sweeping powers to act against people he considered enemies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2539, Divisive laws
The Alien and Sedition Acts outraged Republicans like James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2538, The Napoleonic Wars divide the nation
Hamilton supported Britain; Jefferson supported France. Washington declared American neutrality. Find out on today's episode how the Napoleonic Wars divided the nation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2537, Differences over economics
Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton were at odds over the interpretation of the necessary and proper clause.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2536, Concerns over an energetic national government
Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed about the power of the national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2535, The first American political parties
Learn today about the first American political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2534, Political parties: good or bad?
Edmund Burke thought political parties were useful, but many Americans thought of parties as factions: divisive forces in the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2533, Factions in the American colonies
There were lots of factions in the American colonies. Today we learn about some of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2532, The debate over factions
James Madison thought the Constitution would limit the effects of factions; Alexander Hamilton thought factions were an evil to be eliminated from society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2531, Arguments against judicial review
Not everyone agreed with the concept of judicial review. This episodes examines some of their arguments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2530, Judicial review
Today we define what judicial review means.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2529, Marbury v. Madison
Today: the seminal Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2528, Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 defined the federal judiciary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2527, Caution over changing the Constitution
The Framers were cautious about changing the body of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2526, Arguments for a bill of rights
Jefferson, Washington, and Madison made convincing arguments for a bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2525, Arguments for a bill of rights
There were many persuasive arguments for a bill of rights, but adoption of the U.S. Bill of Rights would have to wait until after ratification.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2524, Prohibition and its repeal
Prohibition was a short-lived experiment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2523, More amendments
Did you know that a Supreme Court decision once barred Congress from levying an income tax? It was overturned by the sixteenth amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2522, Fundamental changes
The Civil War Amendments and amendments that increased direct participation by citizens fundamentally changed the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2521, The Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights was proposed with 12 amendments; only 10 survived to become the Bill of Rights. One of the 12 became the Twenty-seventh Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2520, Twenty-seven amendments
More than 11,000 amendments to the Constitution have been formally proposed, but only 27 have been adopted.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2519, How to amend the Constitution
Amendments to the Constitution must be ratified either by state legislatures or special state conventions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2518, Amending the Constitution
The Framers knew from the beginning that the Constitution would have to be amended.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2517, A raucous ratification
Politics was far from genteel in the colonial era.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2516, The Constitution is ratified!
Learn about the rough road to ratification of the Constitution on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2515, The road to ratification
The Federalists struck a deal with the Anti-Federalists that saved the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2514, Protections of rights under the Constitution
The Federalists fought hard to defend the Constitution against Anti-Federalist criticisms.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2513, Is the Constitution too complicated?
Is the government created by the Constitution too complicated to get anything done? Madison argued that it was just complicated enough.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2512, The best way to promote republicanism
The Federalists made many arguments to support their position.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2511, The Constitution would not rely on civic virtue
If civic virtue of citizens does not guarantee rights, what will? The Federalists thought they had the answer.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2510, Civic virtue cannot be relied upon
Is civic virtue enough to allow a republic to survive? The Federalists said it wasn't.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2509, Survival in a large republic
How could democracy survive in a large, diverse nation? James Madison thought he knew the answer.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2508, Federalist 10
In Federalist 10, James Madison turned classical republican arguments on their heads.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2507, Republican government in a large and diverse nation
Could America do what no large republic had done in history? Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2140, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 4: Founders who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention
Jefferson, Adams, Paine, Henry, and Hancock did not attend the Philadelphia Convention, but for different reasons.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2506, Presenting Federalist arguments
The Federalists argued that the Constitution represented a "new science of politics."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2505, The Federalist
The Federalist is considered by historians to be the most important work written to defend the new Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2504, Federalist strategy
Federalist strategy was to hold state ratifying conventions as soon as possible so that Anti-Federalists would not have enough time to organize.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2503, Arguments for a bill of rights
State governments had bills of rights, so why didn't the federal government?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2502, Vague and general powers are dangerous
The Anti-Federalists believed that the lack of a bill of rights in the Constitution would results in basic rights of the people being stripped away.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2501, The Constitution's lack of a bill of rights
The proposed Constitution lacked a bill of rights
60-Second Civics: Episode 2500, Anti-Federalist criticisms of checks and balances
It's our 2,500th episode! Today we learn about some powerful Anti-Federalist critiques of the system of checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2499, Anti-Federalist arguments about the presidency and courts
The Anti-Federalists argued that both the president and the federal courts would have too much power under the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2498, Anti-Federalist arguments about the power of Congress
The Anti-Federalists were concerned that the Constitution gave too much power to Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2497, Contributions of the Anti-Federalists
Overall, George Washington felt that the Anti-Federalists had contributed to the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2496, Robert Yates
Robert Yates wrote a series of Anti-Federalist essays explaining why the Constitution would not be the best form of government for the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2495, Anti-Federalist ideas
What did the Anti-Federalists believe? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2494, Benjamin Franklin on the Constitution
Benjamin Franklin on the Constitution and the struggle for ratification in Massachusetts, on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2493, A nationwide debate
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists engaged in a nationwide debate about ratification of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2492, Anti-Federalists
Today we are introduced to the Anti-Federalists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2491, Debate begins
Debate of the Constitution begins in the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2490, The ratification process begins
The ratification process was consistent with social contract theory and the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2489, We the People
The plan for ratification of the Constitution was consistent with the idea of "We the People...do establish and ordain this Constitution."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2488, Ratification
James Madison knew that all the states were unlikely to approve the new Constitution, but he thought of an alternative.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2487, Unresolved controversies at the Philadelphia Convention
Today we learn about unresolved controversies at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2486, Controversy over voting rights
Voting rights sparked controversy at the Philadelphia Convention
60-Second Civics: Episode 2485, National citizenship
The Constitution did not define national citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2484, A compromise over slavery
The fugitive slave clause shows that the Framers intended slavery to be a state institution, and not a permanent one.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2483, The fugitive slave clause
The fugitive slave clause shows that the Framers intended slavery to be a state institution, and not a permanent one.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2482, Slavery and representation
The debate over the Three-fifths Compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2481, Why the word "slavery" does not appear in the Constitution
The Framers were ashamed of slavery, and did not include the word in the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2480, Article IV
Article IV of the Constitution contains several important protections.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2479, The Constitution limits state power
The Constitution forbids state governments to pass certain laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2478, Political independence
Is the political independence of members of Congress important? The Framers thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2477, Limitations on the power of the national government
Today learn about habeas corpus, ex post facto laws, bills of attainder, and more.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2476, Powers of the national government over the states, Part 2
On today's podcast we explore more powers of the national government over the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2475, Powers of the national government over the states, Part 2
On today's podcast we explore more powers of the national government over the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2474, Concerns about state power
The Framers of the Constitution had to perform a delicate balancing act.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2473, Impeachment and judicial review
Impeachment and judicial review are two vital checks on the power of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2472, The power of war
One of the most important powers in the Constitution, the power to wage and declare war, is shared by the president and Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2471, The power to appoint executive officials and make treaties
Article II, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution lists important powers shared by Congress and the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2470, Separated and shared powers
The Framers of the Constitution ensured that the branches of government had separated and shared powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2469, How judges should be selected
Although the Framers agreed that judges should be independent, how judges should be selected was more controversial.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2468, The independence of the judicial branch
The Framers of the Constitution took great care to ensure that the judicial branch remained independent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2467, Agreement over the national judiciary
The national judiciary was one area where the Framers of the Constitution substantially agreed.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2466, The national judiciary
Today we learn about the creation of the national judiciary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2465, Pros and cons of the Electoral College
Today we examine the pros and cons of the Electoral College.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2464, The Electoral College and the popular vote
A presidential candidate can win the popular vote, but still lose the Electoral College vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2463, The Electoral College
The Electoral College explained.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2462, The perils of presidential selection
The Framers of the Constitution did not approve direct election, but thought that indirect election was fraught with danger.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2461, How should we elect the president?
The Framers of the Constitution were not generally in favor of having the president elected directly by the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2460, What kind of presidency should we have?
The Framers of the Constitution originally proposed a 7-year term of office for the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2459, One chief executive
The Framers agreed that it would be better to have one single chief executive rather than multiple executives.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2458, Three questions about the executive branch
The Framers of the Constitution had to resolve three key issues about the nature of the executive branch.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2457, Alexander Hamilton on the executive branch
Alexander Hamilton described the dilemma of the Framers in creating the office of the president, but James Wilson came to Philadelphia with a plan.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2456, Fear of executive power
The Framers feared an executive branch that was too strong, but experience taught them that the executive should not be too weak.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2455, Compromises about the power of Congress
The compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey plans sheds some light on the current powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2454, Congress designed to be a deliberative body
Congress was not actually designed to pass legislation quickly. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2453, Separated institutions sharing powers
The Framers created a system that historian Richard Neustadt called "a government of separated institutions sharing powers."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2452, An imbalance of power leads to tyranny
The American colonists believed that Parliament had been corrupted by the Crown.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2451, Adding new states
How did the Framers deal with the addition of new states to the Union? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2450, The Three-Fifths Compromise
The Three-Fifths Compromise meant that three-fifths of enslaved people would be counted for purposes of representation in Congress, although the word "slaves" was never mentioned.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2449, Controversy over slavery and representation
Delegates to the Philadelphia Convention argued about whether slaves were equal to free men for purposes of representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2448, How should representation be decided?
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention debated whether slaves should be counted for purposes of representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2447, Taxation and compromise
The Great Compromise settled the issue of representation, but controversy remained.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2446, The Great Compromise
The Great Compromise saved the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2445, Defeat of the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan failed, but it was clear that a compromise was needed.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2444, Hamilton's plan fails
Alexander Hamilton's plan for national government never gained any traction at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2443, Alexander Hamilton's New York Plan
Alexander Hamilton's plan for a national government featured a strong executive and weak states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2442, The executive and judicial branches under the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan featured an odd executive branch composed of several people appointed by Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2441, Powers of Congress under the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan proposed to increase the powers of Congress
60-Second Civics: Episode 2440, Disagreement over representation in the Senate
Debate raged at the Philadelphia Convention over proportional versus equal representation in the Senate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2439, A government for states, not individuals
Should the federal government represent states or individuals?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2438, Proportional vs. equal representation
The controversial idea of the Virginia Plan was that representation in the House and Senate should be based on population.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2437, The Pinckney Plan
Today we learn about a little-known plan for government that was only rediscovered in the twentieth century.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2436, Congressional power under the Virginia Plan
Congress would be much more powerful under the Virginia Plan than under the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2435, Federalism under the Virginia Plan
James Madison's Virginia Plan had a big influence over how we are governed today.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2434, The Virginia Plan
James Madison's Virginia Plan proposed a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2433, Madison does his homework
James Madison we extremely well-prepared for the Philadelphia Convention. He isn't called the "Father of the Constitution" for nothing.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2432, The benefits of the Philadelphia Convention's rules
The rules of the Philadelphia Convention had a purpose: to promote civil discourse.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2431, Secrecy at the Philadelphia Convention
If it weren't for James Madison, we might not know the details of what happened at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2430, Rules for the Philadelphia Convention
There were many rules governing the Philadelphia Convention; most were for the sake of promoting civil discourse.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2429, Who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention?
Jefferson, Adams, and Patrick Henry did not attend the Philadelphia Convention, but for different reasons.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2428, Roger Sherman at the Philadelphia Convention
Roger Sherman attended nearly every session of the Philadelphia Convention and was instrumental in creating the Connecticut Compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2427, Edmund Randolph at the Philadelphia Convention
Edmund Randolph refused to sign the Constitution, but later campaigned for its ratification.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2426, Gouverneur Morris at the Philadelphia Convention
Gouverneur Morris wrote much of the actual text of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2425, James Wilson at the Philadelphia Convention
James Wilson was born in Scotland. He was active in the Revolution, and led the ratification effort in Pennsylvania.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2424, Alexander Hamilton at the Philadelphia Convention
Alexander Hamilton was outvoted by his fellow New Yorkers, but he campaigned hard for the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2423, Benjamin Franklin at the Philadelphia Convention
Benjamin Franklin was 81 and in poor health at the Philadelphia Convention, but rarely missed a meeting.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2422, James Madison at the Philadelphia Convention
Today we learn about James Madison, the brilliant and versatile "father of the Constitution."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2421, George Washington at the Philadelphia Convention
George Washington was so respected that he was unanimously elected president of the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2420, Delegates to the Philadelphia Convention
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention varied widely in age in ability.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2419, State participation in the Philadelphia Convention
In 1787 the Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2418, Shays' Rebellion, Part 3
What were the long-term effects of Shays' Rebellion? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2417, Shays' Rebellion, Part 2
Daniel Shays and his "Regulators" attempt to seize a state armory to fuel their rebellion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2416, Shays' Rebellion, Part 1
Angry farmers and a showdown with the government: Sound familiar? Except this rebellion happened in 1786.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2415, Debt and instability after the American Revolution
An economic downturn in the mid-1780s led to a crisis in the early American republic.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2414, Economic consequences of the American Revolution
The Revolutionary War had both good and bad consequences for the economy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2413, Low turnout at the Annapolis Convention
The Annapolis Convention was disappointing, but it did result in a call to amend the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2412, Fixing the Articles of Confederation
Problems with the Articles of Confederation led to calls for reform.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2411, Majority tyranny under state governments
The threat of majority tyranny concerned Americans
60-Second Civics: Episode 2410, Localists vs. cosmopolitans
Learn about the tensions between localists and cosmopolitans after the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2409, Treatment of loyalists after the American Revolution
Some state governments refused to protect loyalists after the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2408, A weak national government created problems
A weak Congress created many problems in the early United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2407, Agreements with other nations under the Articles of Confederation
International trade was particularly difficult under the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2406, Limited government power under the Articles
Limiting the power of the national government too much turned out to be a disaster.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2405, Admitting states to the Union
Today we learn how new states were admitted to the Union under the Northwest Ordinance.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2404, The Northwest Ordinance
Arguably the most significant Articles of Confederation was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2403, Achievements under the Articles of Confederation
Today we learn about some of the achievements of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2402, Balancing power in the Articles of Confederation
Learn how the Articles of Confederation resolved three key controversies on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2401, Three issues
Three issues divided groups of states against each other during debates over the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2400, Powers of the Confederation Congress
Today we learned about the powers of the Confederation Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2399, A firm league of friendship
Today we learn how the Articles of Confederation created a "firm league of friendship" among the states rather than a strong central government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2398, Government should be close to the people
The Continental Congress realized that a strong central government was necessary, but they were wary of its power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2397, Fear of a strong national government
Writers of the Article of Confederation were wary of a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2396, A plan for confederation
Taxes, territory, and representation were contentious issues during debates over the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2395, The need for political union
Today, an introduction to the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2394, Protections in state constitutions
State constitutions after independence protected a variety of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2393, State declarations of rights
Find out on today's podcast some of the guarantees provided in state declarations of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2392, The influence of the Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights was an influential document. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2391, Rights in the Virginia Declaration of Rights
On today's podcast we take a look at the rights in the Virginia Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2390, The Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights served as a model for the U.S. Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2389, Rights in the Pennsylvania constitution
Today we examine the preamble to the Pennsylvania constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2388, Rights in state constitutions
Most state constitutions began by listing the rights of the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2387, Representation of different economic classes
The representation of different economic classes in the Massachusetts constitution of 1780 contributed to political stability.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2386, A strong executive
The Massachusetts constitution of 1780 featured a strong executive, unlike most state constitutions of the era.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2385, Massachusetts constitution of 1780
The Massachusetts constitution of 1780 had a structure that closely resembled that of the U.S. Constitution, but preceded it by seven years.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2384, Limits on legislative power
State legislatures were powerful during and after the American Revolution, but there were checks on their power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2383, Examples of legislative supremacy
Legislatures severely limited the power of governors after the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2382, Limiting the power of judges
The framers of state constitutions were wary of the power of judges.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2381, Reasons for legislative supremacy
Today we learn the reasons for the faith the framers of state constitutions had in legislative supremacy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2380, Legislative supremacy
Most state constitutions immediately following independence provided for legislative supremacy and majority rule.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2379, Social contract and voting
State constitutions guaranteed the right to popular sovereignty, but not everyone got to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2378, Basic principles of state constitutions
All state constitutions after independence contained several basic principles.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2377, Free and independent states
The Declaration of Independence proclaimed the colonies to be "Free and Independent States."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2376, The right to revolution
The Declaration of Independence made a radical claim: that the people have a right to revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2375, Charges against the king
The Declaration of Independence charged King George III of depriving the colonists of the rights he was supposed to protect.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2374, Human equality and government by consent
Human equality and government by consent are two bedrock principles of the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2373, The Declaration of Independence
After a long train of abuses by King George III, the colonists declare independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2372, The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was a radical document. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2371, The Revolution begins
After Lexington and Concord, Britain declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2370, Concord Hymn
Today, the poem Concord Hymn by Ralph Waldo Emerson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2369, Lexington and Concord
The "shot heard 'round the world" marked the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2368, The First Continental Congress
The Intolerable Acts were a step too far for the colonies. Delegates met in the First Continental Congress to coordinate resistance.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2367, The Intolerable Acts
After the Tea Act, some colonists dressed like Mohawk indians and dumped tea into Boston Harbor. The Punitive Acts ensued, further fanning the flames of revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2366, John Adams and the Boston Massacre
Before he was president, John Adams defended the soldiers accused of the Boston Massacre. He called it "one of the most gallant...actions of my whole life."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2365, The Boston Massacre
On the night of March 5, 1770, a terrible event occurred that would be called "bloody butchery" by Samuel Adams. We know it today as the Boston Massacre.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2364, Daughters of Liberty
More British taxation on the colonists leads to the formation of the Daughters of Liberty.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2363, Sons of Liberty
Who were the Sons of Liberty? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2362, Opposition to British taxation
On today's podcast, learn about the three forms of opposition to British taxation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2361, No taxation without representation
Many Americans resisted new British taxes after the Seven Years' War. "No taxation without representation" became their rallying cry.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2360, Quartering Act of 1765
The Quartering Act of 1765 was one in a series of laws that angered American colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2359, The Stamp Act
The Stamp Act was Parliament's first attempt to impose a direct, internal tax on the American colonies. It was reviled by the colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2358, The Proclamation Act of 1763
The British Parliament once forbade settlement west of the Appalachians. It didn't have the welfare of Native Americans in mind, however.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2357, Salutary neglect
The laissez-faire attitude of the British toward the colonies resulted in Americans becoming used to their freedoms.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2356, Parliament takes action to control the colonies
The British Parliament took several steps to control the American colonies in the late 18th century.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2355, Increasing control of the colonies
War debt compelled the British to increase control over the colonies. A bad move, as it turned out.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2354, American legislators
There were several key differences between American legislators and member so Parliament.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2353, The importance of property in colonial America
In many American colonies, you had to own at least 50 acres of land to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2352, Colonial governors and courts
Governors and courts had important roles in the American colonies
60-Second Civics: Episode 2351, Separation of powers in the colonies
The structure of colonial governments resembled those we have in states today.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2350, Representative government in America
Representative government was one of the most important developments in the American colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2349, Basic principles of colonial governments
Colonists sought to protect their basic rights in their colonial constitutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2348, Colonial innovations in government
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were an important step in American constitutionalism. Learn why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2347, Colonial legislatures
Today we learn about colonial legislatures and checks on their authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2346, Structure of colonial governments
Learn about the structure of American colonial governments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2345, Inequality in the colonies
Indentured servants, Native Americans, and slaves did not have equal rights in colonial America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2344, Not all Americans enjoyed basic rights
Although guarantees of basic rights appeared in many American colonies, not all Americans benefited equally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2343, The Massachusetts Body of Liberties of 1641
The Massachusetts Body of Liberties was America's first bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2342, A royal charter
The royal charter for Jamestown guaranteed the settlers the rights of Englishmen.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2341, The Southern Colonies
The Southern Colonies were mostly rural. They produced agricultural products and exploited the labor of slaves.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2340, The New England Colonies
The New England Colonies featured the first confederation among European settlers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 23389, Success in America
The chance to improve one's lot in life is fundamental to the American experience.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2339, The Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies were diverse, tolerant, and cosmopolitan.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2338, Success in America
The chance to improve one's lot in life is fundamental to the American experience.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2337, Work in colonial America
In colonial America you had to work hard to survive.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2336, The land of opportunity
How America became the land of opportunity
60-Second Civics: Episode 2335, The labor shortage in colonial America
In colonial America land was cheap, but labor was scarce.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2334, Corporate and proprietary charters
The English Crown tried many methods to lure colonists to America, but eventually the colonists were considered to be too independent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2333, The Mayflower Compact
The Mayflower was a long way off course. But what they agreed to do would make history.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2332, Royal proprietorships and joint-stock companies
Eleven of the 13 colonies were royal proprietorships.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2331, British settlers needed
Britain used royal proprietorships and joint-stock companies to entice settlers to settle America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2330, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 21:The English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights expressed two important principles that influenced American constitutionalism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2329, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 20: Parliament's power grows
Parliament's power grew in the 17th century, and struggles for power led to the English Bill of Rights of 1689.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2328, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 19: Habeas Corpus Act of 1679
Today we learn about one of the most important limits on governmental power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2327, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 18: Petition of right of 1628
With the Restoration, the right to habeas corpus gained new authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2326, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 17: Struggles for power
In the 17th century, the Crown and Parliament squabbled over money, religion, and foreign policy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2325, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 16: The British Constitution
The British constitution is not a single written document. Learn more on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2324, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 15: Common-law rights in America
American colonists in Britain cherished their common-law rights and devised ways to protect them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2323, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 14: Common-law rights
Learn about the evolution of common-law rights on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2322, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 13: The Magna Carta's bumpy ride
King John tried to subvert the Magna Carta as soon as his signed it.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2321, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 12: The Magna Carta and constitutional principles
Americans would find the seed of important constitutional principles in the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2320, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 11: More Magna Carta
The barons didn't believe they were making any drastic change in the power of the king when they forced King John to sign the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2319, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 10: The rule of law
What does the rule of law have to do with the Magna Carta? Find out on 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2318, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 9: The Magna Carta
The Magna Carta established three principles important for the development of constitutional government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2317, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 8: Precedent to the Magna Carta
Learn about the Charter of Liberties, a forerunner of the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2316, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 7: Common-law rights
Learn about the English common-law system on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2315, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 6: Stare decisis
How did the system of stare decisis evolve in England? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2314, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 5: Parliament develops
Learn how Parliament evolved into a check on monarchical power on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2313, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 4: The Model Parliament
What was the Model Parliament? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2312, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 3: The origins of Parliament
How did the English Parliament begin? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2311, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 2: 1066 and all that
William the Conqueror changed the way England was governed.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2310, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 1: The Anglo-Saxon era
Today we begin our series on the British origins of American constitutionalism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2309, History and rights, Part 17: New science of politics
What was the "new science of politics"? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2308, History and rights, Part 16: Enlightenment political philosophers
Today we learn about four influential political philosophers of the Enlightenment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2307, History and rights, Part 15: Science and reason
On today's podcast, we discuss the factors that led to the Age of Enlightenment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2306, History and rights, Part 14: Age of Enlightenment
On today's podcast, we discuss the factors that led to the Age of Enlightenment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2305, History and rights, Part 13: Capitalism, natural rights, Protestantism, and Adam Smith.
Capitalism was justified by both natural rights philosophy and Protestant religious ideas.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2304, History and rights, Part 12: The rise of capitalism
The increase in over greater distances help break up feudalism in Europe.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2303, History and rights, Part 11: The Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia gave rise to the modern nation-state.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2302, History and rights, Part 10: Wars of the Reformation
The Reformation sparked bloody violence in Europe that would spawn the modern nation-state.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2301, History and rights, Part 9: The Reformation, individualism, and the Puritans
The Reformation posed a threat to most established institutions and authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2300, History and rights, Part 8: Greater freedom of conscience
The Reformation encouraged greater freedom of conscience and decentralzed religious authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2299, History and rights, Part 7: The Protestant Reformation
The Reformation was a powerful stimulus to modern individualism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2298, History and rights, Part 6: The Renaissance
A lot of things changed during the Renaissance. Find out what happened on 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2297, History and rights, Part 5: Medieval European society
Imagine a society where you never leave the social class you were born in: this was medieval Europe.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2296, History and rights, Part 4: Classical republicanism in medieval Europe
Some medieval ideas about society and government came from classical republicanism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2295, History and rights, Part 3: Feudalism
Europe in the Middle Ages was fragmented, people were isolated, and feudalism predominated.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2294, History and rights, Part 2: The influence of the Church
Christianity was a powerful force during the Middle Ages but political loyalties were still local.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2293, History and rights, Part 1: The Judeo-Christian religious tradition
Much of the Founders' commitment to liberty and individual rights sprang from the Judeo-Christian tradition.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2292, Natural rights philosophy, Part 10: Human equality
Slavery was introduced in Virginia in 1619. Nevertheless, the idea of human equality would be used as a weapon to attach slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2291, Natural rights philosophy, Part 9: Limited government
According to John Locke, the people own government and the people can terminate it.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2290, Natural rights philosophy, Part 8: Popular sovereignty
Two important ideas from natural rights philosophy: popular sovereignty and government by consent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2289, Natural rights philosophy, Part 7: Inalienable rights
During the crisis of the Revolution, Americans took a more personal view of their inalienable rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2288, Natural rights philosophy, Part 6: The Bible of the Revolution
Whose work was considered to be the Bible of the Revolution? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2287, Natural rights philosophy, Part 5: The right to revolution
The right to revolution became a key argument of the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2286, Natural rights philosophy, Part 4: Life, Liberty, and Leviathan
In contrast to Thomas Hobbes, John Locke imagined that people form social contracts to preserve their rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2285, Natural rights philosophy, Part 3: Leviathan
It was a century of rapid change. Classical republicanism had lost its luster. Then came Hobbes and Locke.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2284, Natural rights philosophy, Part 2: Basic questions
What would life be like in a state of nature? That's what Hobbes and Locke asked themselves.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2283, Natural rights philosophy, Part 1: Divine right vs. self-government
The Declaration of Indepence put forth a radical proposition: that government had to have the consent of the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2282, Ideas about civic life, Part 9: The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence contains some of the most important ideas underlying our government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2281, Ideas about civic life, Part 8: Civic virtue and moral education
Classical republicans believed that civic virtue must be learned.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2280, Constitution Day 2015
What does the Preamble to the Constitution say? What is its significance? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2279, Ideas about civic life, Part 7: Cincinnatus
What do Cincinnatus and George Washington have in common? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2278, Ideas about civic life, Part 6: The office of citizen in classical republics
Classical republicans believed that virtuous citizens should have the courage to do what is right even under trying circumstances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2277, Ideas about civic life, Part 5: Disparities cause conflict
Today we learn why classical republicans believed that members of political communities must be fundamentally alike.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2276, Ideas about civic life, Part 4: Small, uniform communities
Classical republicans thought that good government was only possible in small communities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2275, Ideas about civic life, Part 3: Three aspects of classical republicanism
What three aspects of classical republicanism most influenced the founding generation of Americans? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2274, Ideas about civic life, Part 2: Lessons from the Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was both a lesson and a warning to those who wrote the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2273, Ideas about civic life, Part 1: The mixed constitution of Rome
The Roman Republic had an influence on the American Founders. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2272, Colonial America, Part 20: Direct vs. representative democracy
Every constitutional system faces the same problem: ensuring that those in power obey constitutional limits
60-Second Civics: Episode 2271, Colonial America, Part 19: The Constitution as a higher law
What makes a higher law different from laws passed by legislatures? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2270, Colonial America, Part 18: What is constitutional government?
The Founders learned the lesson of unrestrained government power and sought to create a government of limited power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2269, Colonial America, Part 17: Constitutions are controversial!
Constitutions are controversial! Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2268, Colonial America, Part 16: What is a constitution?
Today we learn exactly what a constitution is.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2267, Colonial America, Part 15: Republican government
What exactly is representative government, anyway? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2266, Colonial America, Part 14: England as a mixed constitution
The idea of a mixed constitution was popularized by Polybius; Montesquieu would later cite England as an example of one.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2265, Colonial America, Part 13: Aristotle, Polybius, and the mixed constitution
What do Aristotle and Polybius have to do with the American Founders? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2264, Colonial America, Part 12: Democracy
Why did Aristotle think that democracy wasn't the best form of government?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2263, Colonial America, Part 11: Aristotle's forms of governments.
Aristotle defined "right" and "corrupt" forms of government. Learn what these are on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2262, Colonial America, Part 10: Aristotle and the branches of government
Aristotle observed that every country's government must perform three functions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2261, Colonial America, Part 9: Lessons learned by the Founders
The American Founders learned two important lessons about government. Listen to today's podcast to learn about them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2260, Colonial America, Part 8: Hamilton on the lessons of history
Alexander Hamilton was not a fan of using examples from history when designing modern governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2259, Colonial America, Part 7: John Locke and the Founders
Why was John Locke considered "America's philosopher"? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2258, Colonial America, Part 6: Lessons from Greek and Roman philosophy
Democracies did not have a history of success, but the Founders learned the lessons of history.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2257, Colonial America, Part 5: Self-government
Even by 1776, Americans had 150 years of experience in self-governance.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2256, Colonial America, Part 4: Well-read Founders
America's Founders were well-read, familiar with Aristotle, Cicero, and Blackstone.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2255, Colonial America, Part 3: A rural nation
The America of the 1700s was a largely rural nation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2254, Colonial America, Part 2: A diverse nation
America of the 1700s was a diverse place.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2253, Colonial America, Part 1: The American colonies
America was established as a large, diverse nation composed of people of varying backgrounds, religions, and languages.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2252, Introduction, Part 2: The American Founders
Today we learn about America's Founders and the ideas that influenced them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2251, Introduction, Part 1: An adventure in ideas
Americans are defined as people by our shared values, such as our belief in liberty, equality, and justice.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2250, Political parties, Part 17: The downside of political parties
Today we learn about some of the downsides of the political party system in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2249, Political parties, Part 16: Political parties as agents of stability
Despite James Madison's fears, political parties can be agents of stability.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2248, Political parties, Part 15: The role of political parties today
What are political parties good for, anyway? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2247, Political parties, Part 14: Political parties as a revolutionary idea
Are political parties good for the nation? Here are some arguments in favor of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2246, Political parties, Part 13: Martin Van Buren on political parties
Martin Van Buren believed that political parties could act as a kind of glue in the American political system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2245, Political parties, Part 12: Political parties as a permanent part of the American political system
At the time of his inauguration, Thomas Jefferson hoped that political parties would disappear.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2244, Political parties, Part 11: Tied presidential election
The Twelfth Amendment ended a problem with the Constitution and created an ongoing role for political parties in the American system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2243, Political parties, Part 10: The Election of 1800
Why was the election of 1800 revolutionary? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2242, Political parties, Part 9: Anatomy of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Today we examine the Alien and Sedition Acts in detail.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2241, Political parties, Part 8: The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts would shock us today. They arguably caused John Adams to lose reelection.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2240, Political parties, Part 7: Federalists and Republicans
The Federalists and Republicans became the first national political parties in the United States, but neither considered the other to be the "loyal opposition."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2239, Political parties, Part 6: France or England?
Jefferson's and Hamilton's supporters were at odds over which side to support during the Napoleonic Wars. This division, among others, led to America's first political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2238, Political parties, Part 5: Hamilton and Jefferson and the necessary and proper clause
Hamilton and Jefferson had different interpretations of the necessary and proper clause.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2237, Political parties, Part 4: The first parties debate the power of government
Americans have been debating the power of the national government for quite a long time.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2236, Political parties, Part 3: Factionalism in colonial America
Americans were no strangers to factionalism, even in colonial America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2235, Political parties, Part 2: The potential value of factions
Is there any value in having factions in a representative system?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2234, Political parties, Part 1: Madison, Hume, and Burke on factions
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton differed on whether factions and political parties were good for the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2233, Amendments and judicial review, Part 17: Justice John Gibson's arguments against judicial review
Justice John Gibson created some powerful arguments against judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2232, Amendments and judicial review, Part 16: Arguments against judicial review
Judicial review wasn't accepted by everyone. President Andrew Jackson even threatened not to enforce Supreme Court decisions he disagreed with.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2231, Amendments and judicial review, Part 15: The Judiciary Act of 1789
Article III of the Constitution only outlines the national judiciary; Congress had to fill in the details.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2230, Amendments and judicial review, Part 14: Marshall's arguments
What were John Marshall's arguments in favor of judicial review? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2229, Amendments and judicial review, Part 13: Judicial review
Who has the final say about the meaning of the Constitution? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2228, Amendments and judicial review, Part 12: Marbury v. Madison
Does the Supreme Court have the authority to declare laws unconstitutional? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2227, Amendments and judicial review, Part 11: James Madison's other proposals
James Madison had many ideas for improving the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2226, Amendments and judicial review, Part 10: Prominent supporters of a bill of rights
Jefferson, Washington, and Madison all supported a bill of rights. Ten of the amendments proposed by Madison were later adopted as the Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2225, Amendments and judicial review, Part 9: Unsuccessful arguments for a bill of rights
George Mason and others argued that a bill of rights be added to the Constitution. They did not gain enough support for the idea during the Philadelphia Convention, but their idea would eventually triumph.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2224, Amendments and judicial review, Part 8: Prohibition
Americans thought better about Prohibition, repealing it in 1933.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2223, Amendments and judicial review, Part 7: The Constitution amended
On today's podcast, amendments to the Constitution affecting the president and Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2222, Amendments and judicial review, Part 6: Fundamental changes
Today we learn about some important constitutional amendments that go to the core of our constitutional system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2221, Amendments and judicial review, Part 5: The Bill of Rights
What is the Bill of Rights? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2220, Amendments and judicial review, Part 4: Madison and the Bill of Rights
Which Framer of the Constitution pushed the Bill of Rights through Congress? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2219, Amendments and judicial review, Part 3: How the Constitution has been amended
Most proposed amendments fail to be approved by Congress before being sent to the states. Learn about some of these on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2218, Amendments and judicial review, Part 2: How to amend the Constitution
How to amend the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2217, Amendments and judicial review, Part 1: Amending the Constitution
The Framers wanted the Constitution to be difficult to amend, but not sacrosanct.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2216, The Federalists, Part 14: The robust political scene of the Founding era
Political operatives in the Founding era weren't above using unsavory tactics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2215, The Federalists, Part 13: The Constitution is ratified
On today's podcast, the Constitution is finally ratified.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2214, The Federalists, Part 12: A compromise saves the Constitution
On today's podcast, a compromise saves the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2213, The Federalists, Part 11: The lack of a bill of rights
On today's podcast, Alexander Hamilton's arguments against a bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2212, The Federalists, Part 10: The branches of government protect basic rights
Do the three branches of government protect our basic rights? The Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2211, The Federalists, Part 9: The Constitution promotes republicanism
The Federalists argued that the rights and welfare of everyone is protected by the unamended Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2210, The Federalists, Part 8: State legislatures and civic virtue
In the early years of the American republic, state legislatures sometimes favored creditors over debtors. The Founders saw this as a betrayal of the ideals of the Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2209, The Federalists, Part 7: Civic virtue is not reliable
Is civic virtue enough to ensure good government? Not according to the Federalists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2208, The Federalists, Part 6: Federalist 10 and republican government
James Madison devised powerful arguments supporting the idea that a republic could be successful in the United States. Learn about some of these arguments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2207, The Federalists, Part 5: The fear of faction
The Framers of the Constitution knew the danger of factions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2206, The Federalists, Part 4: How can republican government survive?
The Federalists needed to counter the claim that republican government could not survive in America. They sent in their pinch hitter: James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2205, The Federalists, Part 3: A new science of politics
The Federalists argued that the Constitution represented a "new science of politics" that made Anti-Federalist critiques obsolete.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2204, The Federalists, Part 2: The Federalist
Today we discuss one of the most important sources of information about the Constitution: A series of essays known as The Federalist.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2203, The Federalists, Part 1: The Federalists organize
Today we kick off our series on the Federalists, who supported ratification of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2202, The Anti-Federalists, Part 16: Concern about rights
Today on the podcast, the Anti-Federalists argue that the lack of a bill of rights is a serious flaw in the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2201, The Anti-Federalists, Part 15: The Anti-Federalists warn against tyranny
Are the general welfare and necessary and proper clauses dangerous? The Anti-Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2200, The Anti-Federalists, Part 14: The lack of a bill of rights
Most states already had bills of rights. So why not the Constitution?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2199, The Anti-Federalists, Part 13: Robert Yates and Patrick Henry
Why did Robert Yates and Patrick Henry object to the Constitution? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2198, The Anti-Federalists, Part 12: Senate accountability and mixed powers
The Anti-Federalists had a lot of problems with the Constitution, even with the system of checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2197, The Anti-Federalists, Part 11: Executive and judicial power
The Anti-Federalists believed that the executive and judicial branches would have too much power under the proposed Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2196, The Anti-Federalists, Part 10: The potential for tyranny
The Anti-Federalists argued that the Constitution contained the potential for tyranny.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2195, The Anti-Federalists, Part 9: Civic virtue rather than a strong national government
The Anti-Federalists believed that civic virtue rather than a strong national government was the best solution to America's problems.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2194, The Anti-Federalists, Part 8: A distant government
Anti-Federalists argued that a distant national government would require a standing army and taxation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2193, The Anti-Federalists, Part 7: Anti-Federalist arguments against a strong national government
Today we learn some Anti-Federalists against a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2192, The Anti-Federalists, Part 6: The effect of Anti-Federalist opinion
George Washington wrote that Anti-Federalist opposition to the Constitution might not ultimately be such a bad thing for the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2191, The Anti-Federalists, Part 5: Reasoned discourse
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists sought to use reasoned discourse to persuade the citizenry.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2190, The Anti-Federalists, Part 3: The ratification debates begin
Who were the Anti-Federalists? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2189, The Anti-Federalists, Part 3: The ratification debates begin
Today on the podcast, the ratification debates begin with a speech by Benjamin Franklin. George Mason leaves and refuses to sign the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2188, The Anti-Federalists, Part 2: Ratification by the people
The ratification of the Constitution was consistent with John Locke's social contract theory.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2187, The Anti-Federalists, Part 1: A plan to ratify the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution went around state legislatures to get the Constitution ratified.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2186, Federalism, Part 13: Secession
Since the 1790s some states argued that they had a right to secede.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2185, Federalism, Part 12: Restricting suffrage to landowners
Gouverneur Morris suggested that suffrage should be limited to landowners. This caused an uproar.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2184, Federalism, Part 11: National citizenship
The Framers of the Constitution never defined citizenship, but left it up to the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2183, Federalism, Part 10: Slavery and commerce
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention had to compromise in order to get the authority to regulate commerce among the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2182, Federalism, Part 9: Compromises on slavery
The Framers of the Constitution had to make many compromises on the issue of slavery. Today we learn some of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2181, Federalism, Part 8: Slavery and the states
The words "slave" and "slavery" never appeared in the Constitution, perhaps because the Framers were ashamed of it.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2180, Federalism, Part 7: A history of protecting individual rights
The Framers saw the need to limit state power. Find out how on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2179, Federalism, Part 6: Limitations on state power
The Framers saw the need to limit state power. Find out how on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2178, Federalism, Part 5: The Constitution protects political independence.
How does the Constitution protect political independence? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2177, Federalism, Part 4: More protections of rights in the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution tried hard to protect individuals from a powerful national government. Learn how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2176, Federalism, Part 3: Habeas corpus, ex post facto laws, and bills of attainder
Do you know what an ex post facto law is? What about a bill of attainder? They are prohibited by the Constitution. Learn more on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2175, Federalism, Part 2: Some powers of the federal government
What authority does the national government have over the states? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2174, Federalism, Part 1: Concerns about abuses by state governments
The Framers were concerned about states restricting individual freedom, so they gave the federal government some power of the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2173, The Three Branches of Government, Part 18: Impeachment and judicial review
Today we learn about two important checks on government: impeachment and judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2172, The Three Branches of Government, Part 17: Appointments, treaties, and warmaking powers
How do checks and balances work? Today we provide some examples.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2171, The Three Branches of Government, Part 16: Checks and balances
On today's podcast we learn about checks and balances and take a close look at the president's veto power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2170, The Three Branches of Government, Part 14: How should federal judges be selected?
How should federal judges be selected? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2169, The Three Branches of Government, Part 13: Reasons to separate the judicial branch
Why is the judicial branch independent of the president and Congress? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2168, The Three Branches of Government, Part 13: Judges and judicial power
Today we learn about judges and judicial power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2167, The Three Branches of Government, Part 12: The judicial branch
Today we learn about the federal judiciary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2166, The Three Branches of Government, Part 11: The Electoral College explained
Today on the podcast, we explain the Electoral College.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2165, The Three Branches of Government, Part 10: Why not direct popular election?
Why didn't most Framers of the Constitution want the people to elect the president directly?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2164, The Three Branches of Government, Part 9: How should the president be selected?
Deciding how the president should be selected was a tricky matter for the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2163, The Three Branches of Government, Part 8: How long should a president remain in office?
How long should a president remain in office? The Framers' original proposal was for one seven-year term.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2162, The Three Branches of Government, Part 7: Should there be more than one chief executive?
How many chief executives should there be? Learn the arguments for and against a plural executive on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2161, The Three Branches of Government, Part 6: An energetic executive
The Framers of the Constitution thought that the executive should have "energy." We learn why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2160, The Three Branches of Government, Part 5: Broad versus enumerated powers
How broad should be the powers of Congress? The Virginia and New Jersey plans proposed different visions of legislative power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2159, The Three Branches of Government, Part 4: Enumerated powers
Should Congress be able to make any laws it wants to? The Framers didn't think so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2158, The Three Branches of Government, Part 3: A deliberative body
The Framers of the Constitution wanted Congress to thoroughly debate issues and avoid corruption.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2157, The Three Branches of Government, Part 2: Checks and balances
Their experiences with British royal governors led Americans to create weak executives, but this would have a cost.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2156, The Three Branches of Government, Part 1: The corruption of Parliament by the Crown
Since ancient times, philosophers have argued that governments must do three things: make, execute, and judge laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2155, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 19: The debate over representation in the expanding republic
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention recognized that the United States would expand, and planned accordingly.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2154, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 18: The Northern position on proportional representation
Northern delegates to the Philadelphia convention were opposed to counting slaves for purposes of representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2153, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 17: The Southern position on proportional representation
Should enslaved people be counted as persons for determining representation? This was hotly debated at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2152, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 16: What does proportional representation mean?
The Great Compromise was only the first step in settling the issue of proportional representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2151, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 15: The Great Compromise saves the convention
The Great Compromise passed by a single vote. Each side have to give up something to make the compromise work.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2150, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 14: The Great Compromise
The Great Compromise finally broke the impasse at the Philadelphia Convention over representation in Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2149, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 13: Equal representation in the Senate
Today on 60-Second Civics, a vote on equal representation in the Senate results in a deadlocked convention. But there was a way out.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2148, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 12: Defeat of the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan was defeated at the Philadelphia Convention. This meant the Virginia Plan became the basis for discussion at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2146, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 10: The debate over proportional representation
Proportional representation was the most controversial part of the Virginia Plan. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2145, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 9: Proportional representation in the Virginia Plan
What was the most controversial element of the Virginia Plan? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2144, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 8: More features of the Virginia Plan
Some features of the Virginia Plan might strike you as being unusual. Find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2143, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 7: Representation in the Virginia Plan
The Virginia Plan proposed proportional representation and a government with three branches.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2142, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 6: James Madison's Virginia Plan
Today on 60-Second Civics: James Madison's Virginia plan proposes a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2141, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 5: Laying the groundwork
The Framers established rules for the Philadelphia Convention right away. One of them was secrecy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2139, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 3: Benjamin Franklin and Gouverneur Morris
Benjamin Franklin and Gouverneur Morris made important contributions to the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2138, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 2: Washington and Madison
Today we learn about two important Framers: George Washington and James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2136, The first national government, Part 6: The aftermath of Shays' Rebellion
Shays' Rebellion and the popular reaction to it gave Congress an extra incentive to reform the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2135, The first national government, Part 5: Shays' Rebellion
Angry farmers led by Daniel Shays led an armed rebellion in Massachusetts. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2134, The first national government, Part 4: Economic trouble in the early republic
Hard economic times afflict the United States after the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2133, The first national government, Part 3: Achievements under the Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation had its weaknesses, but the government under the Articles also had significant achievements.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2132, The first national government, Part 2: Government under the Articles of Confederation
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could not raise taxes directly. Each state had one vote, regardless of population.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2131, The first national government, Part 1: The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation established a weak national government with very limited powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2130, State constitutions, Part 7: The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780
What was one of John Adams' greatest contributions to American constitutionalism? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2129, State constitutions, Part 6: Rights protected in state declarations of rights
Most states had their own declarations or bills of rights. These were designed to protect the rights of the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2128, State constitutions, Part 6: The Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights served as a model for our Bill of Rights. Learn about this fascinating document on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2127, State constitutions, Part 5: State declarations of rights
States were keen to protect the rights of citizens. Most states therefore had bills or declarations of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2126, State constitutions, Part 4: The judicial branch of early state governments
The states created their own judicial branches, but made sure not to give them too much power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2125, State constitutions, Part 3: Constitutional government in the states
On today's podcast, we learn more principles of government the states incorporated into their constitutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2124, State constitutions, Part 2: Natural rights and republicanism
State governments adopted ideas from natural rights and republicanism in their constitutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2123, State constitutions, Part 1: State governments
The newly independent Americans needed a national government, but how would they go about creating one that respected their rights?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2122, The Declaration of Independence, Part 15: Loyalists
The Loyalists thought that rebellion against the king went too far. They paid a steep price for their views.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2121, The Declaration of Independence, Part 14: Right to revolution
Did the colonies have the right to revolution against George III? The colonists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2120, The Declaration of Independence, Part 13: Complaints against King George III
What were some of the complaints the colonists had against King George III? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2119, The Declaration of Independence, Part 12: Human equality and government by consent
Today on the podcast we discuss human equality and government by consent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2118, The Declaration of Independence, Part 11: The Declaration and natural rights philosophy
Today we learn about natural rights philosophy and the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2117, The Declaration of Independence, Part 10: The three parts of the Declaration
On today's podcast, we learn about the three parts of the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2116, The Declaration of Independence, Part 9: The Second Continental Congress
Today we learn about the Second Continental Congress at the start of the war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2115, The Declaration of Independence, Part 8: A state of rebellion
On today's podcast, the king declares the colonies to be in a state of rebellion and a committee is appointed to write the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2114, The Declaration of Independence, Part 7: Lexington and Concord
Today on the podcast we learn about the start of the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2113, The Declaration of Independence, Part 6: The First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress met in 1774 and took steps that would anger the British government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2112, The Declaration of Independence, Part 5: The Boston Tea Party
The Tea Act led directly to the an incident known as the Boston Tea Party, a prelude to the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2111, The Declaration of Independence, Part 4: The Boston Massacre
Who represented the soldiers during the trial for the Boston Massacre? The answer may surprise you.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2110, The Declaration of Independence, Part 3: Stamp Act Congress and the Daughters of Liberty
On today's podcast, we learn about the Stamp Act Congress, the Declaratory Act, and the Daughters of Liberty.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2109, The Declaration of Independence, Part 2: Resistance to increasing British control.
Unpopular taxes like the Stamp Act spawned popular resistance in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2108, The Declaration of Independence, Part 1: No taxation without representation
As the British tightened their control over the colonies, the colonists grew resentful of British control.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2107, Republican government, Part 5: Cincinnatus, a model of civic virtue
Who was Cincinnatus? The American Founders thought all American should emulate him.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2106, Republican government, Part 4: Common good and civic virtue
The main purpose of government, according to the Founders, is to promote the common good.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2105, Republican government, Part 3: The advantages of republican government
Today we discuss the advantages of republican government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2104, Republican government, Part 2: Direct democracy and republican government
What sort of government did the Roman Republic have? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2103, Republican government, Part 1: The Roman Republic
The American Founders saw the Roman Republic as both an example and a warning.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2102, Why do people need a government? Part 5: Human equality
Do people naturally have equal political rights? John Locke thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2101, Why do people need a government? Part 4: Limited government
According to John Locke, the people own their government and can terminate it when it does not guard their interests.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2100, Why do people need a government? Part 3: Individual rights and popular sovereignty
Learn how natural rights philosophy informed the Founders' conceptions of individual rights and sovereignty on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2099, Why do people need a government? Part 2: John Locke and the state of nature
Today we are introduced to the natural rights philosophy of John Locke.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2098, Why do people need a government? Part 1: Life, liberty, and property
The Founders believed that all people had the right to life, liberty, and property.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2097, Life in the American colonies, Part 6: The British increase control
As the British increased their control of the 13 colonies, discontent grew among the colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2096, Life in the American colonies, Part 5: A land of opportunity, for some
Many Americans in the colonies were prosperous, but not everyone was treated equally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2095, Life in the American colonies, Part 4: The Southern Colonies
Although most Americans in the thirteen colonies were self-sufficient, others exploited the labor of enslaved people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2094, Life in the American colonies, Part 3: New England and the Middle Colonies
Learn about colonial life in New England and the Middle Colonies on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2093, Life in the American colonies, Part 2: The diverse American colonies
The diversity of the thirteen colonies created a society that was different from that of Europe.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2092, Life in the American colonies, Part 1: The American colonies in 1770
The British colonies in North America were a growing, vibrant place in the 1770s. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2091, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 6: Why you should participate in government
Our republic requires the participation of it citizens in order to function.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2090, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 5: Social and political action
Today we learn about two ways that citizens can address community problems.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2089, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 4: Civic life
Today we learn about civic life and why it is important.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2088, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 3: Civic responsibility
When civic participation declines, our democracy declines.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2087, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 2: Civic participation
Civic participation very important to American democracy.Learn how you can get involved on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2086, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 7: The rights and responsibilities of citizens
Citizenship has been called the highest office of government. But what does this mean?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2085, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 6: Civil disobedience
What did Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King Jr have in common? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2084, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 5: Responsibilities of citizens
Sure, citizens have rights, but what are their responsibilities? We find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2083, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 4: Economic rights
Today we learn about economic rights and are reminded of situation in which rights can be limited.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2082, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 3: Personal and political rights
On today's 60-Second Civics, we explore personal and political rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2081, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 2: U.S. citizenship
What's the difference between a U.S. citizens and a legal permanent resident? How do you become a citizen? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2080, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 1: What it means to be a citizen
What does it mean to you to be a citizen? Today we discuss the meaning of American citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2079, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 7: The ideal of self-government spreads to the world
How have American ideas about self-government spread to the world? Find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2078, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 6: What the Founders learned from other countries
Today on the podcast, we discover what America's Founders learned from other countries.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2077, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 5: Contributions of the United States to the world
In today's podcast we spell out some of the America's most important democratic principles.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2075, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 3: International organizations
Governments aren't the only organized bodies that operate regionally or internationally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2074, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 2: How nations interact
Today on the podcast, we explore how countries interact with each other.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2073, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 1: The nation-state and international law
How much do you know about international law? Expand your knowledge with today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2072, We the People, Lesson 27, Part 2: Problems of due process
Due process means that government must protect both the public and the individual accused of breaking the law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2071, We the People, Lesson 27, Part 1: Due process of law
Today we learn about due process of law. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2070, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 5: The civil rights movement
The years 1963-64 were exciting years for the civil rights movement. Find out why on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2069, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 4: The civil rights movement
Brown v. Board of Education was a turning point in the fight against discrimination, but the struggle against inequality had just begun.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2068, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Today we learn why the Supreme Court separate but equal laws to be unconstitutional. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2067, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 2: Plessy v. Ferguson
On today's podcast, we learn about the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2066, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 1: The Fourteenth Amendment
The equal protection clause was meant to protect African Americans against discrimination. It didn't work out that way. On today's episode, we learn why. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2065, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 8: Voting rights today
Responsible voting is essential to democracy. Today we discuss what citizens must do in order to vote. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2064, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 7: Eighteen-year-olds gain the right to vote
Today on 60-Second Civics we learn how 18-year-olds gained the right to vote. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2063, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 6: Native Americans and voting rights
The Indian Citizenship Act made it easy for Native Americans to vote, right? Well, not exactly. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2062, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 5: Women and the right to vote
How long did it take for women to gain the right to vote? Too long. Learn about the long struggle on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2061, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 4: The long road to voting rights
People of all ethnicities worked together to change unfair voting laws: it wasn't until the 1960s that full voting rights for African Americans were achieved. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2060, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 3: Literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and poll taxes
Laws passed after the Civil War made it easier for African American men to vote, but some states passed laws to stop them. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2059, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 2: The Civil War Amendments
Today on 60-Second Civics, we learn about the Civil War Amendments. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2058, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 1: Expanding the right to vote
The right to vote was limited to white men who owned property in the early republic, but change came in fits and starts. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2057, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 5: How the courts decide establishment of religion cases
How do the courts decide whether a law violates the establishment clause? We find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2056, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 4: Can government limit the way you practice your religion?
The government can't tell you what to believe, but it can limit certain religious practices. Find out more on today's 60-Second Civics. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2055, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 3: Conflicts over freedom of religion
Americans generally agree that freedom of religion is an important right, but that doesn't mean the issue is without controversy. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2054, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 2: Protecting religious freedom
Religious freedom wasn't always protected in America. Learn more on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2053, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 1: The establishment and free exercise clauses
Do you know what the establishment and free exercise clauses are? Find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2052, We the People, Lesson 23, Part 5: Limits on free expression
Does free expression have its limits? The courts think so. Learn more on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2051, We the People, Lesson 23, Part 4: Tinker v. Des Moines
Is Tinker v. Des Moines still relevant? Listen to today's podcast and decide for yourself. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2050, We the People, Lesson 23, Part 3: Freedom of expression: Representative democracy and peaceful change
Today on 60-Second Civics: how freedom of expression helps maintain representative democracy and promotes peaceful change. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2049, We the People, Lesson 23, Part 2: Freedom of expression: human development, dignity, and development
On today's episode, we discuss several benefits of freedom of expression. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2048, We the People, Lesson 23, Part 1: Freedom of expression
Today we learn about freedom of expression. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2047, We the People, Lesson 22, Part 5: How justices decide cases
How do today's justices decide Supreme Court cases? Well, it's complicated. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2046, We the People, Lesson 22, Part 4: Fundamental principles and modernist methods of constitutional interpretation
Today on the podcast: the fundamental principles and modernist methods of constitutional interpretation. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2045, We the People, Lesson 22, Part 3: The original intent method of constitutional interpretation
On today's 60-Second Civics, we learn about the "original intent" method of constitutional interpretation. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2044, We the People, Lesson 22, Part 2: The plain meaning of constitutional interpretation
What four methods of constitutional interpretation are used today? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2043, We the People, Lesson 22, Part 1: Introduction to interpreting the Constitution
Today we learn why it is so hard to interpret the Constitution. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2042, We the People, Lesson 21, Part 4: Marbury v. Madison explained
John Marshall argued that Congress overstepped its bounds, and it was the job of the Supreme Court to strike down acts of Congress that violate the Constitution. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2041, We the People, Lesson 21, Part 3: Introduction to Marbury v. Madison
How did the Supreme Court establish its power of judicial review? We find out on today's episode. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2040, We the People, Lesson 21, Part 2: Judicial review and state laws
What is the supremacy clause? Can state laws trump the Constitution? We find out on today's 60-Second Civics. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2039, We the People, Lesson 21, Part 1: Judicial review
Who decides what the words of the Constitution mean? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2038, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 10: Political parties today
Political parties aren't necessarily a bad thing. On today's podcast, we learn what political parties do for the nation. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2037, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 9: The Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson called it the "revolution of 1800." Learn why on today's 60-Second Civics. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2036, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 8: The Alien and Sedition Acts
In an time of heated partisan bickering, the John Adams administration passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2035, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 7: American neutrality; Republican anger
John Jay negotiates an unpopular treaty, and Washington advises neutrality. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2034, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 6: War polarizes the new nation
A time of war divides the new nation. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2033, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 5: A national bank
Alexander Hamilton wanted a national bank to issue paper money. It was a controversial idea. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2032, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 4: The challenge of creating a strong economy
The first Secretary of the Treasury had an ambitious agenda. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2031, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 3: The birth of political parties in the United States
Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had very different views on the role of government. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2030, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 2: Hamilton and Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson clashed over the role of government in American life. Does this sound familiar? This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2029, We the People, Lesson 20, Part 1: The rise of political parties
On today's podcast, we learn how political parties began in the United States. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2028, We the People, Lesson 19, Part 5: An overview of the Bill of Rights
On today's podcast, we provide a brief overview of the Bill of Rights. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2027, We the People, Lesson 19, Part 4: The compromise that produced the Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights was the result of a compromise between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Learn more on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2026, We the People, Lesson 19, Part 3: The establishment of the judicial branch
How was the judicial branch of American government organized? Find out on today's 60-Second Civics. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2025, We the People, Lesson 19, Part 2: The first cabinet
Thomas Jefferson, Henry Knox, and Alexander Hamilton formed George Washington's first cabinet.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2024, We the People, Lesson 19, Part 1: George Washington elected president
Today we learn the story behind the election of George Washington as the nation's first president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2023, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 8: A powerful argument against the Constitution
The Anti-Federalists had a powerful argument against the proposed constitution: It did not contain a bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2022, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 7: Would the Constitution guard against tyranny?
Would the Constitution guard against tyranny? The Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagreed. This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2021, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 6: Would the Constitution provide republican government?
On today's episode, the debate over whether the Constitution would provide for republican government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2020, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 5: Debating the power of the national government
On today's podcast, the Anti-Federalists and Federalists square off over the proposed constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2019, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 4: The Anti-Federalists
On today's 60-Second Civics, we learn about the Anti-Federalists. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2018, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 3: The Federalists
What do Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay all have in common? Find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2017, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 2: Madison's plan for ratification
James Madison's plan for ratification of the Constitution relied on idea of a social contract. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2016, We the People, Lesson 18, Part 1: Approving the Constitution
How do you get a nation to approve a new Constitution? James Madison had the answer.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2015, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 8: The relationship between the federal and state governments
Today, the federal government is very powerful. Nevertheless, most laws that effect us directly are state and local laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2014, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 7: The supremacy clause
Today on 60-Second civics we explain the supremacy clause. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2013, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 6: Powers denied to the federal and state governments
Today's podcast is all about limits on the power of the federal and state governments. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2012, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 5: Powers of the state and federal governments
The federal and state governments have certain, specified powers. Some powers are held by the people themselves. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2011, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 4: Federalism
Just what is federalism, exactly? You'll find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2010, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 3: The people are sovereign
According to natural rights philosophy, the people control their government. This philosophy inspired the Framers. The result: The Constitution. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2009, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 2: Confederations
On today's podcast, we learn all about confederations. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2008, We the People, Lesson 17, Part 1: Unitary government
Today we learn the differences between federal and unitary government. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2007, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 8: Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
How much do you know about the Supreme Court? Learn the basics on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2006, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 7: A national judiciary
Article III of the Constitution established the judicial branch of government. Learn about the judiciary on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2005, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 6: The Electoral College today
How do we elect a new president? This podcast explains the Electoral College. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2004, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 5: Creating the Electoral College
Not trusting Congress, the states, or the people to directly elect a president, the Framers created the Electoral College.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2003, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 4: Selecting a president
The Framers wanted to design a system to elect a president as qualified as George Washington. Doing so would not prove to be easy. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2002, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 3: Impeachment
On today's podcast, we learn about impeachment. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2001, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 2: Limits on the power of the executive branch
How is presidential power limited? Find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2000, We the People, Lesson 16, Part 1: The powers of the executive branch
What are the powers of the president under the Constitution? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1999, We the People, Lesson 15, Part 6: Checks on the power of Congress
Today we learn about checks on the power of Congress. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1998, We the People, Lesson 15, Part 5: Limits on the power of Congress
Are there any limits on the power of Congress? You bet. We learn about some of these limits on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1997, We the People, Lesson 15, Part 4: Powers of Congress in the Constitution
The Constitution grants Congress both general and enumerated powers. Learn what these are in today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1996, We the People, Lesson 15, Part 3: General and enumerated powers
The Framers gave Congress some general and some enumerated powers. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1995, We the People, Lesson 15, Part 2: Madison proposes a powerful Congress
James Madison proposed a strong Congress; some Framers thought this was risky. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1994, We the People, Lesson 15, Part 1: Creating a strong national government
The national government under the Articles of Confederation was weak. The Framers set out to fix that problem. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1993, We the People, Lesson 14, Part 4: Compromise over slavery
The Framers of the Constitution compromised over slavery in order to convince delegates to the Philadelphia Convention to support the Constitution. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1992, We the People, Lesson 14, Part 3: The issue of slavery at the Philadelphia Convention
On today's 60-Second Civics, we learn about the issue of slavery at the Philadelphia Convention. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1991, We the People, Lesson 14, Part 2: Tariffs a divisive issue at the Philadelphia Convention
Today we look at how the issue of tariffs were a divisive issue at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1990, We the People, Lesson 14, Part 1: Economic differences between North and South
On today's podcast, we explore the economic differences between the North and South at the time of the Philadelphia Convention. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1989, We the People, Lesson 13, Part 4: The Connecticut Compromise
The Connecticut Compromise had three parts. Do you know what they are? This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1988, We the People, Lesson 13, Part 3: The New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey plan called for a weak national government and equal representation in a unicameral Congress. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1987, We the People, Lesson 13, Part 2: The Virginia Plan
James Madison came well-prepared to the Philadelphia Convention: he brought the Virginia Plan with him. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1986, We the People, Lesson 13, Part 1: Equal vs. proportional representation
One of the most important agreements at the Philadelphia Convention was about representation. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1985, We the People, Lesson 12, Part 6: Basic ideas about government
Today on 60-Second Civics: The basic ideas about government agreed upon by the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1984, We the People, Lesson 12, Part 5: The Philadelphia Convention begins
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention agreed on three important points at the start of the convention. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1983, We the People, Lesson 12, Part 4: Founders who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention
A number of notable American statesmen did not attend the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1982, We the People, Lesson 12, Part 3: Benjamin Franklin and Gouverneur Morris
What did Benjamin Franklin and Gouverneur Morris contribute to the writing of the Constitution? Find out on today's episode. This podcast originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1981, We the People, Lesson 12, Part 2: Madison and Washington
Today we discuss two influential Framers of the Constitution: James Madison and George Washington. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1980, We the People, Lesson 12, Part 1: The Philadelphia Convention
Fifty-five men met in Philadelphia in 1787. Their task: to amend the Articles of Confederation. Their accomplishment: a new framework for a government that would last more than 200 years.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1979, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 10: The Annapolis Convention
Only five states bothered to show up at the Annapolis Convention, but something important happened there: delegates agreed that the Articles of Confederation should be revised. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1978, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 9: Shays' Rebellion
Shays' Rebellion failed, but it pointed out the downside of having of a weak federal government. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1977, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 8: Economic turmoil breeds discontent in the early republic
On today's podcast, economic turmoil breeds discontent after the Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1976, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 7: Property rights threatened under the Articles of Confederation
Under the Articles of Confederation, factions in state legislatures threatened property rights. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1975, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 6: Congress, the states, and trade under the Articles
Under the Articles of Confederation, the federal government had no control over trade.This caused economic problems and people began to lose their jobs. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1974, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 5: Problems with the Articles of Confederation
There were lots of problems with the Articles of Confederation. Congress, for example, had no money and could not directly raise funds. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1973, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 4: Achievements under the Articles of Confederation
Despite a weak central government under the Articles of Confederation, the national government had some important achievements. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1972, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 3: The Articles of Confederation: A weak central government
The Articles of Confederation provided for a weak central government and equal representation in Congress. This would prove problematic. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1971, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 2: Challenges of writing the Articles of Confederation
The writers of the Articles of Confederation had to overcome many obstacles in creating the nation's first constitution. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1970, We the People, Lesson 11, Part 1: The Articles of Confederation
In 1776, Richard Henry Lee made two bold proposals: for Independence and a national government to unify the states. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1969, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 9: State bills of rights
State bills of rights included many of the rights we now recognize as essential.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1968, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 8: The Virginia Declaration of Rights
On today's podcast, we learn about the Virginia Declaration of Rights. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1967, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 7: State declarations of rights
State declarations of rights were meant to show that people had certain rights that could not be taken away. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1966, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 6: Voting in Massachusetts
In early Massachusetts people were divided into different voting groups based on wealth. No property, no vote. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1965, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 5: The Massachusetts constitution
How was the constitution of Massachusetts different from that of most states? Find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1964, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 4: Legislative supremacy
The majority of early state governments gave most power to the legislature. This was known as legislative supremacy. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1963, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 3: Representation, separation of powers, and checks and balances
Today we examine the concepts of representation, separation of powers, and checks and balances in early state governments. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1962, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 2: Basic rights in state constitutions
On today's 60-Second Civics, we learn about the basic rights included in state constitutions. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1961, We the People, Lesson 10, Part 1: New state governments
The American people used principles of political philosophy to protect their rights in their new state governments. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1960, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 10: Battlefield victory and the Treaty of Paris
With the critical help of the French navy, American forces defeated the British at the Battle of Yorktown; in 1783, the Treaty of Paris ended the war. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1959, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 9: Eliza Lucas Pinckney
Today we learn about Eliza Lucas Pinckney, whose resistance to British rule came at a price. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1958, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 8: The South during the revolution
The Revolutionary War wasn't going too well for the Americans in 1780: Charleston fell to the British and Benedict Arnold defected. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1957, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 7: French aid turns the tide in the war
On today's podcast, we learn how French aid helped turn the tide in the Revolutionary War. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1956, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 6: Valley Forge
Winter at Valley Forge was miserable for American troops, but it did not break their resolve. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1955, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 5: Victory and defeat
The British tried to strangle the Revolution, but the Americans gained an important victory at the Battle of Saratoga. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1954, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 4: A bleak start to the war
The Revolutionary War did not begin well for the Americans, and the prospects for American success looked bleak. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1953, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 3: The Articles of Confederation
American soldiers during the Revolution often went unpaid, unfed, and without uniforms. This was only one of the problems of the Continental Congress. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1952, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 2: The shot heard round the world
Today: the shot heard round the world. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1951, We the People, Lesson 9, Part 1: A citizen militia
Today: Paul Revere and the Second Amendment. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1950, We the People, Lesson 8, Part 7: Loyalists
Today we learn about the Loyalists, those Americans who were opposed to the Revolution. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1949, We the People, Lesson 8, Part 6: Complaints against the king
Today: complaints against King George III in the Declaration of Independence. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1948, We the People, Lesson 8, Part 5: Jefferson's arguments in the Declaration of Independence
Why did the American colonists declare independence? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1947, We the People, Lesson 8, Part 4: Natural rights and the Declaration of Independence
What does the Declaration of Independence have to do with natural rights? We find out on today's episode. This podcast originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1946, We the People, Lesson 8, Part 3: All men are created equal
The Declaration of Independence asserted that all people have certain basic rights. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1945, We the People, Lesson 8, Part 2: Explaining the Declaration of Independence
On today's podcast, we explain how the Declaration of Independence is organized. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1944, We the People, Lesson 8, Part 1: The Declaration of Independence
On today's podcast, a committee is appointed to write the Declaration of Independence. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1943, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 12: The Revolution begins
On today's podcast, the American Revolution begins. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1942, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 11: Prelude to war
Today on the podcast we learn about the First Continental Congress. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1941, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 10: The Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party
What happened at the Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party? We find out on today's 60-Second Civics. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1940, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 9: The Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Today we learn about the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberty. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1939, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 8: Committees of correspondence
On today's podcast, the American colonists begin to organize resistance against the British. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1938, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 7: Differing views on taxation
Britain and America differed widely on the unpopular taxes levied on the American colonies. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1937, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 6: The Stamp, Quartering, Declaratory, and Tea Acts
Today we learn about four unpopular taxes in American colonial history. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1936, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 5: The Proclamation of 1763 and the Sugar Act
Today we learn about two British laws that quickly became unpopular in the colonies. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1935, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 4: A new interest in America
For most of the colonial period, Britain left its American colonies alone. But then it needed money. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1934, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 3: Separation of powers and checks and balances in colonial America
Today we learn about the three branches of colonial governments. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1932, We the People, Lesson 7, Part 1: Establishing government in the colonies
The first priority for American colonists: protecting themselves from the abuse of power. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1931, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 8: The English Bill of Rights
Parliament gained more power in 1689 with the English Bill of Rights. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1930, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 7: The Petition of Right of 1628
Today on 60-Second Civics: A struggle between Parliament and the king leads to revolution. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1929, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 6: The creation of Parliament
Today on the podcast we learn about the origins of the British Parliament. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1928, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 5: The rule of law
The Magna Carta established a powerful idea: even the king must obey the law. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1927, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 4: The Magna Carta
King John tried to take back some of the rights of the nobles. It was a mistake that produced the Magna Carta. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1926, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 2: Government based on contract
Feudalism wasn't exactly democratic, but it did introduce one important concept familiar to today's democracies: government based on a contract. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1925, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 2:Feudalism
On today's podcast, we learn about feudalism in England. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1924, We the People, Lesson 6, Part 1: The rights of Englishmen
The American colonists were British subjects and had the rights of Englishmen. Today we learn what these rights were. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1923, We the People, Lesson 5, Part 3: Checks and balances
Today we learn how each branch of government checks and balances the other branches. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1922, We the People, Lesson 5, Part 2: Separation of powers
Today we learn are introduced to the three branches of government. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1921, We the People, Lesson 5, Part 1: Separation and balance of power
Today we learn two ways that constitutional governments ensure that no one person or group gets too much power. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1919, We the People, Lesson 4, Part 6: Antigone, Part 3
Ismene insisted that the state, in the person of Creon, is too powerful to be resisted. Was she right? This episode originally aired in 2014.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1918, We the People, Lesson 4, Part 5: Antigone, Part 2
Antigone's conscience troubled her. She felt it was her duty to bury her brother. So she defied the king. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1917, We the People, Lesson 4, Part 4: Antigone, Part 1
What does the tragedy of Antigone have to do with the study of government? Find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1916, We the People, Lesson 4, Part 3: A higher law
What are the five characteristics of a constitution in a system of constitutional government? You'll find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1915, We the People, Lesson 4, Part 2: Constitutional government
Happy Constitution Day! Today on 60-Second Civics we learn about constitutional government. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1914, We the People, Lesson 4, Part 1: What is a constitution?
What is a constitution? Do all countries have them? Do they have to be written down? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1913, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 10: Civic virtue in the American colonies
How was civic virtue taught in early America? We find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1912, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 9: Civic virtue
What did James Madison have to say about civic virtue? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1911, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 8: Cincinnatus
Do you know the story of Cincinnatus? You should. Learn more about this ancient Roman whose example was important to America's Founders.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1910, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 7: A republican form of government
What kind of government did James Madison think America should have? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1909, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 6: Direct democracy vs. republican government
Today on the podcast, we look at how James Madison explained the difference between a direct democracy and republican government. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1908, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 4: The disadvantages of republican government
A republican government sounds great, right? Well, the Founders feared that such a system might not work in America. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1907, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 4: Two more benefits of republican government
A republican form of government has many benefits, but the people also have responsibilities. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1906, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 3: Two benefits of republican government
Do you know what the main purpose of republican government is? You'll find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1905, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 2: Republican government
In a republic, citizens and their representatives work together to promote he common good. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1904, We the People, Lesson 3, Part 1: The Roman Republic
What was the Roman Republic? We find out on today's podcast. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1903, We the People, Lesson 2, Part 7: Social contract and the purpose of government
On today's podcast, we learn what people gain, when they agree to give up the absolute right to do anything they want. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1902, We the People, Lesson 2, Part 6: Why people form a social contract
Why do people agree to form governments? John Locke thought he had the answer. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1901, We the People, Lesson 2, Part 5: The people must consent to be governed. This episode originally aired in 2013.
What gives government its legitimacy? We find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1900, We the People, Lesson 2, Part 4: Most people are reasonable and good
John Locke thought most people were reasonable and good. But those few, troublesome exceptions caused people to band together. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1899, We the People, Lesson 2, Part 3: Natural rights: Life, liberty, and property
John Locke thought that people could use reason to determine their natural rights. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1898, We the People, Lesson 2, Part 2: John Locke and the state of nature
By imagining life in a state of nature, John Locke was able to answer some important questions about government. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1897, We the People, Lesson 2, Part 1: John Locke
Today we learn about a philosopher who strongly influenced the Founders: John Locke. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1896, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 11: The Founders
The Founders led the fight against British rule and their ideas influenced the writing of the Constitution. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1895, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 10: American colonists and rights
On today's podcast, we discuss the rights American colonists were accustomed to and why they refused to have these rights abridged. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1894, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 9: Opportunity and equality in colonial America
Colonial America really was a land of opportunity for many people, but not for everyone: equal opportunity was still many years away. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1893, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 8:
J. Hector St. John wrote about life in colonial America as being vastly different from that in Europe. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1892, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 7: How were the people living in the colonies different from one another?
American colonists in the 1770s worked hard and lived well. But there was one serious problem that would result a century later in civil war: slavery. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1891, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 6: Prosperity and slavery
American colonists in the 1770s worked hard and lived well. But there was one serious problem that would result a century later in civil war: slavery. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1890, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 5: Self-sufficiency
American colonists were largely self-sufficient. This self-sufficiency would become an important part of the American experience. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1889, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 4: How did people in the colonies earn a living? This episode originally aired in 2013.
On today's podcast, we learn where the American colonists lived and what they did for a living.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1887, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 2: How did American Indians live before Europeans came?
Today we learn about the people who originally lived in the land that later became the thirteen American colonies. This episode originally aired in 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1886, We the People, Lesson 1, Part 1: Why study the British colonies in North America?
Today, 60-Second Civics begins our exploration of the colonies of British North America. This episode originally aired in August 2013.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1885, Political parties, Part 17: The downside of political parties
Today we learn about some of the downsides of the political party system in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1884, Political parties, Part 16: Political parties as agents of stability
Despite James Madison's fears, political parties can be agents of stability.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1883, Political parties, Part 15: The role of political parties today
What are political parties good for, anyway? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1882, Political parties, Part 14: Political parties as a revolutionary idea
Are political parties good for the nation? Here are some arguments in favor of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1881, Political parties, Part 13: Martin Van Buren on political parties
Martin Van Buren believed that political parties could act as a kind of glue in the American political system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1880, Political parties, Part 12: Political parties as a permanent part of the American political system
At the time of his inauguration, Thomas Jefferson hoped that political parties would disappear.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1879, Political parties, Part 11: Tied presidential election
The Twelfth Amendment ended a problem with the Constitution and created an ongoing role for political parties in the American system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1878, Political parties, Part 10: The Election of 1800
Why was the election of 1800 revolutionary? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1877, Political parties, Part 9: Anatomy of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Today we examine the Alien and Sedition Acts in detail.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1876, Political parties, Part 8: The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts would shock us today. They arguably caused John Adams to lose reelection.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1875, Political parties, Part 7: Federalists and Republicans
The Federalists and Republicans became the first national political parties in the United States, but neither considered the other to be the "loyal opposition."
60-Second Civics: Episode 1874, Political parties, Part 6: France or England?
Jefferson's and Hamilton's supporters were at odds over which side to support during the Napoleonic Wars. This division, among others, led to America's first political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1873, Political parties, Part 5: Hamilton and Jefferson and the necessary and proper clause
Hamilton and Jefferson had different interpretations of the necessary and proper clause.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1872, Political parties, Part 4: The first parties debate the power of government
Americans have been debating the power of the national government for quite a long time.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1871, Political parties, Part 3: Factionalism in colonial America
Americans were no strangers to factionalism, even in colonial America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1870, Political parties, Part 2: The potential value of factions
Is there any value in having factions in a representative system?
60-Second Civics: Episode 1869, Political parties, Part 1: Madison, Hume, and Burke on factions
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton differed on whether factions and political parties were good for the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1868, Amendments and judicial review, Part 17: Justice John Gibson's arguments against judicial review
Justice John Gibson created some powerful arguments against judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1867, Amendments and judicial review, Part 16: Arguments against judicial review
Judicial review wasn't accepted by everyone. President Andrew Jackson even threatened not to enforce Supreme Court decisions he disagreed with.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1866, Amendments and judicial review, Part 15: The Judiciary Act of 1789
Article III of the Constitution only outlines the national judiciary; Congress had to fill in the details.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1865, Amendments and judicial review, Part 14: Marshall's arguments
What were John Marshall's arguments in favor of judicial review? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1864, Amendments and judicial review, Part 13: Judicial review
Who has the final say about the meaning of the Constitution? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1863, Amendments and judicial review, Part 12: Marbury v. Madison
Does the Supreme Court have the authority to declare laws unconstitutional? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1862, Amendments and judicial review, Part 11: James Madison's other proposals
James Madison had many ideas for improving the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1861, Amendments and judicial review, Part 10: Prominent supporters of a bill of rights
Jefferson, Washington, and Madison all supported a bill of rights. Ten of the amendments proposed by Madison were later adopted as the Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1860, Amendments and judicial review, Part 9: Unsuccessful arguments for a bill of rights
George Mason and others argued that a bill of rights be added to the Constitution. They did not gain enough support for the idea during the Philadelphia Convention, but their idea would eventually triumph.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1859, Amendments and judicial review, Part 8: Prohibition
Americans thought better about Prohibition, repealing it in 1933.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1858, Amendments and judicial review, Part 7: The Constitution amended
On today's podcast, amendments to the Constitution affecting the president and Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1857, Amendments and judicial review, Part 6: Fundamental changes
Today we learn about some important constitutional amendments that go to the core of our constitutional system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1856, Amendments and judicial review, Part 5: The Bill of Rights
What is the Bill of Rights? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1855, Amendments and judicial review, Part 4: Madison and the Bill of Rights
Which Framer of the Constitution pushed the Bill of Rights through Congress? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1854, Amendments and judicial review, Part 3: How the Constitution has been amended
Most proposed amendments fail to be approved by Congress before being sent to the states. Learn about some of these on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1853, Amendments and judicial review, Part 2: How to amend the Constitution
How to amend the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1852, Amendments and judicial review, Part 1: Amending the Constitution
The Framers wanted the Constitution to be difficult to amend, but not sacrosanct.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1851, The Federalists, Part 14: The robust political scene of the Founding era
Political operatives in the Founding era weren't above using unsavory tactics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1850, The Federalists, Part 13: The Constitution is ratified
On today's podcast, the Constitution is finally ratified.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1849, The Federalists, Part 12: A compromise saves the Constitution
On today's podcast, a compromise saves the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1848, The Federalists, Part 11: The lack of a bill of rights
On today's podcast, Alexander Hamilton's arguments against a bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1847, The Federalists, Part 10: The branches of government protect basic rights
Do the three branches of government protect our basic rights? The Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1846, The Federalists, Part 9: The Constitution promotes republicanism
The Federalists argued that the rights and welfare of everyone is protected by the unamended Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1845, The Federalists, Part 8: State legislatures and civic virtue
In the early years of the American republic, state legislatures sometimes favored creditors over debtors. The Founders saw this as a betrayal of the ideals of the Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1844, The Federalists, Part 7: Civic virtue is not reliable
Is civic virtue enough to ensure good government? Not according to the Federalists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1843, The Federalists, Part 6: Federalist 10 and republican government
James Madison devised powerful arguments supporting the idea that a republic could be successful in the United States. Learn about some of these arguments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1842, The Federalists, Part 5: The fear of faction
The Framers of the Constitution knew the danger of factions. But Madison thought
60-Second Civics: Episode 1841, The Federalists, Part 4: How can republican government survive?
The Federalists needed to counter the claim that republican government could not survive in America. They sent in their pinch hitter: James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1840, The Federalists, Part 3: A new science of politics
The Federalists argued that the Constitution represented a "new science of politics" that made Anti-Federalist critiques obsolete.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1839, The Federalists, Part 2: The Federalist
Today we discuss one of the most important sources of information about the Constitution: A series of essays known as The Federalist.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1838, The Federalists, Part 1: The Federalists organize
Today we kick off our series on the Federalists, who supported ratification of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1837, The Anti-Federalists, Part 16: Concern about rights
Today on the podcast, the Anti-Federalists argue that the lack of a bill of rights is a serious flaw in the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1836, The Anti-Federalists, Part 15: The Anti-Federalists warn against tyranny
Are the general welfare and necessary and proper clauses dangerous? The Anti-Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1835, The Anti-Federalists, Part 14: The lack of a bill of rights
Most states already had bills of rights. So why not the Constitution?
60-Second Civics: Episode 1834, The Anti-Federalists, Part 13: Robert Yates and Patrick Henry
Why did Robert Yates and Patrick Henry object to the Constitution? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1833, The Anti-Federalists, Part 12: Senate accountability and mixed powers
The Anti-Federalists had a lot of problems with the Constitution, even with the system of checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1832, The Anti-Federalists, Part 11: Executive and judicial power
The Anti-Federalists believed that the executive and judicial branches would have too much power under the proposed Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1831, The Anti-Federalists, Part 10: The potential for tyranny
The Anti-Federalists argued that the Constitution contained the potential for tyranny.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1830, The Anti-Federalists, Part 9: Civic virtue rather than a strong national government
The Anti-Federalists believed that civic virtue rather than a strong national government was the best solution to America's problems.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1829, The Anti-Federalists, Part 8: A distant government
Anti-Federalists argued that a distant national government would require a standing army and taxation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1828, The Anti-Federalists, Part 7: Anti-Federalist arguments against a strong national government
Today we learn some Anti-Federalists against a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1827, The Anti-Federalists, Part 6: The effect of Anti-Federalist opinion
George Washington wrote that Anti-Federalist opposition to the Constitution might not ultimately be such a bad thing for the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1826, The Anti-Federalists, Part 5: Reasoned discourse
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists sought to use reasoned discourse to persuade the citizenry.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1825, The Anti-Federalists, Part 3: The ratification debates begin
Who were the Anti-Federalists? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1824, The Anti-Federalists, Part 3: The ratification debates begin
Today on the podcast, the ratification debates begin with a speech by Benjamin Franklin. George Mason leaves and refuses to sign the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1823, The Anti-Federalists, Part 2: Ratification by the people
The ratification of the Constitution was consistent with John Locke's social contract theory.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1822, The Anti-Federalists, Part 1: A plan to ratify the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution went around state legislatures to get the Constitution ratified.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1821, Federalism, Part 13: Secession
Since the 1790s some states argued that they had a right to secede.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1820, Federalism, Part 12: Restricting suffrage to landowners
Gouverneur Morris suggested that suffrage should be limited to landowners. This caused an uproar.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1819, Federalism, Part 11: National citizenship
The Framers of the Constitution never defined citizenship, but left it up to the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1818, Federalism, Part 10: Slavery and commerce
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention had to compromise in order to get the authority to regulate commerce among the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1817, Federalism, Part 9: Compromises on slavery
The Framers of the Constitution had to make many compromises on the issue of slavery. Today we learn some of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1816, Federalism, Part 8: Slavery and the states
The words "slave" and "slavery" never appeared in the Constitution, perhaps because the Framers were ashamed of it.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1815, Federalism, Part 7: A history of protecting individual rights
The Framers saw the need to limit state power. Find out how on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1814, Federalism, Part 6: Limitations on state power
The Framers saw the need to limit state power. Find out how on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1813, Federalism, Part 5: The Constitution protects political independence.
How does the Constitution protect political independence? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1812, Federalism, Part 4: More protections of rights in the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution tried hard to protect individuals from a powerful national government. Learn how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1811, Federalism, Part 3: Habeas corpus, ex post facto laws, and bills of attainder
Do you know what an ex post facto law is? What about a bill of attainder? They are prohibited by the Constitution. Learn more on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1810, Federalism, Part 2: Some powers of the federal government
What authority does the national government have over the states? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1809, Federalism, Part 1: Concerns about abuses by state governments
The Framers were concerned about states restricting individual freedom, so the gave the federal government some power of the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1808, The Three Branches of Government, Part 18: Impeachment and judicial review
Today we learn about two important checks on government: impeachment and judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1807, The Three Branches of Government, Part 17: Appointments, treaties, and warmaking powers
How do checks and balances work? Today we provide some examples.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1806, The Three Branches of Government, Part 16: Checks and balances
On today's podcast we learn about checks and balances and take a close look at the president's veto power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1805, The Three Branches of Government, Part 14: How should federal judges be selected?
How should federal judges be selected? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1804, The Three Branches of Government, Part 13: Reasons to separate the judicial branch
Why is the judicial branch independent of the president and Congress? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1803, The Three Branches of Government, Part 13: Judges and judicial power
Today we learn about judges and judicial power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1802, The Three Branches of Government, Part 12: The judicial branch
Today we learn about the federal judiciary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1801, The Three Branches of Government, Part 11: The Electoral College explained
Today on the podcast, we explain the Electoral College.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1800, The Three Branches of Government, Part 10: Why not direct popular election?
Why didn't most Framers of the Constitution want the people to elect the president directly?
60-Second Civics: Episode 1799, The Three Branches of Government, Part 9: How should the president be selected?
Deciding how the president should be selected was a tricky matter for the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1798, The Three Branches of Government, Part 8: How long should a president remain in office?
How long should a president remain in office? The Framers' original proposal was for one seven-year term.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1797, The Three Branches of Government, Part 7: Should there be more than one chief executive?
How many chief executives should there be? Learn the arguments for and against a plural executive on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1796, The Three Branches of Government, Part 6: An energetic executive
The Framers of the Constitution thought that the executive should have "energy." We learn why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1795, The Three Branches of Government, Part 5: Broad versus enumerated powers
How broad should be the powers of Congress? The Virginia and New Jersey plans proposed different visions of legislative power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1794, The Three Branches of Government, Part 4: Enumerated powers
Should Congress be able to make any laws it wants to? The Framers didn't think so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1793, The Three Branches of Government, Part 3: A deliberative body
The Framers of the Constitution wanted Congress to thoroughly debate issues and avoid corruption.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1792, The Three Branches of Government, Part 2: Checks and balances
Their experiences with British royal governors led Americans to create weak executives, but this would have a cost.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1791, The Three Branches of Government, Part 1: The corruption of Parliament by the Crown
Since ancient times, philosophers have argued that governments must do three things: make, execute, and judge laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1790, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 19: The debate over representation in the expanding republic
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention recognized that the United States would expand, and planned accordingly.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1789, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 18: The Northern position on proportional representation
Today we discuss the terms of the Three-Fifths Compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1788, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 17: The Southern position on proportional representation
Should enslaved people be counted as persons for determining representation? This was hotly debated at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1787, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 16: What does proportional representation mean?
The Great Compromise was only the first step in settling the issue of proportional representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1786, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 15: The Great Compromise saves the convention
The Great Compromise passed by a single vote. Each side have to give up something to make the compromise work.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1785, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 14: The Great Compromise
The Great Compromise finally broke the impasse at the Philadelphia Convention over representation in Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1784, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 13: Equal representation in the Senate
Today on 60-Second Civics, a vote on equal representation in the Senate results in a deadlocked convention. But there was a way out.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1783, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 12: Defeat of the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan was defeated at the Philadelphia Convention. This meant the Virginia Plan became the basis for discussion at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1782, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 11: The New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan called for a unicameral legislature with increased powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2147, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 11: The New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan called for a unicameral legislature with increased powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1781, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 10: The debate over proportional representation
Proportional representation was the most controversial part of the Virginia Plan. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1780, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 9: Proportional representation in the Virginia Plan
What was the most controversial element of the Virginia Plan? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1779, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 8: More features of the Virginia Plan
Some features of the Virginia Plan might strike you as being unusual. Find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1778, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 7: Representation in the Virginia Plan
The Virginia Plan proposed proportional representation and a government with three branches.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1777, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 6: James Madison's Virginia Plan
Today on 60-Second Civics: James Madison's Virginia plan proposes a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1776, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 5: Laying the groundwork
The Framers established rules for the Philadelphia Convention right away. One of them was secrecy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1775, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 4: Founders who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention
Jefferson, Adams, Paine, Henry, and Hancock did not attend the Philadelphia Convention, but for different reasons.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1774, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 3: Benjamin Franklin and Gouverneur Morris
Benjamin Franklin and Gouverneur Morris made important contributions to the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1773, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 2: Washington and Madison
Today we learn about two important Framers: George Washington and James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1772, The first national government, Part 7: Delegates to the Philadelphia Convention
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention did not represent all parts of American society of the time.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1771, The first national government, Part 6: The aftermath of Shays' Rebellion
Shays' Rebellion and the popular reaction to it gave Congress an extra incentive to reform the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1770, The first national government, Part 5: Shays' Rebellion
Angry farmers led by Daniel Shays led an armed rebellion in Massachusetts. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1769, The first national government, Part 4: Economic trouble in the early republic
Hard economic times afflict the United States after the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1768, The first national government, Part 3: Achievements under the Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation had its weaknesses, but the government under the Articles also had significant achievements.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1767, The first national government, Part 2: Government under the Articles of Confederation
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could not raise taxes directly. Each state had one vote, regardless of population.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1766, The first national government, Part 1: The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation established a weak national government with very limited powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1764, State constitutions, Part 6: Rights protected in state declarations of rights
Most states had their own declarations or bills of rights. These were designed to protect the rights of the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1763, State constitutions, Part 6: The Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights served as a model for our Bill of Rights. Learn about this fascinating document on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1762, State constitutions, Part 5: State declarations of rights
States were keen to protect the rights of citizens. Most states therefore had bills or declarations of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1761, State constitutions, Part 4: The judicial branch of early state governments
The states created their own judicial branches, but made sure not to give them too much power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1760, State constitutions, Part 3: Constitutional government in the states
On today's podcast, we learn more principles of government the states incorporated into their constitutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1759, State constitutions, Part 2: Natural rights and republicanism
State governments adopted ideas from natural rights and republicanism in their constitutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1758, State constitutions, Part 1: State governments
The newly independent Americans needed a national government, but how would they go about creating one that respected their rights?
60-Second Civics: Episode 1757, The Declaration of Independence, Part 15: Loyalists
The Loyalists thought that rebellion against the king went too far. They paid a steep price for their views.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1756, The Declaration of Independence, Part 14: Right to revolution
Did the colonies have the right to revolution against George III? The colonists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1755, The Declaration of Independence, Part 13: Complaints against King George III
What were some of the complaints the colonists had against King George III? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1754, The Declaration of Independence, Part 12: Human equality and government by consent
Today on the podcast we discuss human equality and government by consent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1753, The Declaration of Independence, Part 11: The Declaration and natural rights philosophy
Today we learn about natural rights philosophy and the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1752, The Declaration of Independence, Part 10: The three parts of the Declaration
On today's podcast, we learn about the three parts of the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1751, The Declaration of Independence, Part 9: The Second Continental Congress
Today we learn about the Second Continental Congress at the start of the war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1750, The Declaration of Independence, Part 8: A state of rebellion
On today's podcast, the king declares the colonies to be in a state of rebellion and a committee is appointed to write the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1749, The Declaration of Independence, Part 7: Lexington and Concord
Today on the podcast we learn about the start of the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1748, The Declaration of Independence, Part 6: The First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress met in 1774 and took steps that would anger the British government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1747, The Declaration of Independence, Part 5: The Boston Tea Party
The Tea Act led directly to the an incident known as the Boston Tea Party, a prelude to the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1746, The Declaration of Independence, Part 4: The Boston Massacre
Who represented the soldiers during the trial for the Boston Massacre? The answer may surprise you.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1745, The Declaration of Independence, Part 3: Stamp Act Congress and the Daughters of Liberty
On today's podcast, we learn about the Stamp Act Congress, the Declaratory Act, and the Daughters of Liberty.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1744, The Declaration of Independence, Part 2: Resistance to increasing British control.
Unpopular taxes like the Stamp Act spawned popular resistance in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1743, The Declaration of Independence, Part 1: No taxation without representation
As the British tightened their control over the colonies, the colonists grew resentful of British control.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1742, Republican government, Part 5: Cincinnatus, a model of civic virtue
Who was Cincinnatus? The American Founders thought all American should emulate him.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1741, Republican government, Part 4: Common good and civic virtue
The main purpose of government, according to the Founders, is to promote the common good.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1740, Republican government, Part 3: The advantages of republican government
Today we discuss the advantages of republican government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1739, Republican government, Part 2: Direct democracy and republican government
What sort of government did the Roman Republic have? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1738, Republican government, Part 1: The Roman Republic
The American Founders saw the Roman Republic as both an example and a warning.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1737, Why do people need a government? Part 5: Human equality
Do people naturally have equal political rights? John Locke thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1736, Why do people need a government? Part 4: Limited government
According to John Locke, the people own their government and can terminate it when it does not guard their interests.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1735, Why do people need a government? Part 3: Individual rights and popular sovereignty
Learn how natural rights philosophy informed the Founders' conceptions of individual rights and sovereignty on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1734, Why do people need a government? Part 2: John Locke and the state of nature
Today we are introduced to the natural rights philosophy of John Locke.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1733, Why do people need a government? Part 1: Life, liberty, and property
The Founders believed that all people had the right to life, liberty, and property.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1732, Life in the American colonies, Part 6: The British increase control
As the British increased their control of the 13 colonies, discontent grew among the colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1731, Life in the American colonies, Part 5: A land of opportunity, for some
Many Americans in the colonies were prosperous, but not everyone was treated equally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1730, Life in the American colonies, Part 4: The Southern Colonies
Although most Americans in the thirteen colonies were self-sufficient, others exploited the labor of enslaved people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1729, Life in the American colonies, Part 3: New England and the Middle Colonies
Learn about colonial life in New England and the Middle Colonies on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1728, Life in the American colonies, Part 2: The diverse American colonies
The diversity of the thirteen colonies created a society that was different from that of Europe.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1726, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 6: Why you should participate in government
Our republic requires the participation of it citizens in order to function.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1725, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 5: Social and political action
Today we learn about two ways that citizens can address community problems.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1724, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 4: Civic life
Today we learn about civic life and why it is important.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1723, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 3: Civic responsibility
When civic participation declines, our democracy declines.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1722, We the People, Lesson 30, Part 2: Civic participation
Civic participation very important to American democracy.Learn how you can get involved on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1721, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 7: The rights and responsibilities of citizens
Citizenship has been called the highest office of government. But what does this mean?
60-Second Civics: Episode 1720, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 6: Civil disobedience
What did Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King Jr have in common? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1719, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 5: Responsibilities of citizens
Sure, citizens have rights, but what are their responsibilities? We find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1718, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 4: Economic rights
Today we learn about economic rights and are reminded of situation in which rights can be limited.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1717, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 3: Personal and political rights
On today's 60-Second Civics, we explore personal and political rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1716, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 2: U.S. citizenship
What's the difference between a U.S. citizens and a legal permanent resident? How do you become a citizen? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1715, We the People, Lesson 29, Part 1: What it means to be a citizen
What does it mean to you to be a citizen? Today we discuss the meaning of American citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1714, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 7: The ideal of self-government spreads to the world
How have American ideas about self-government spread to the world? Find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1713, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 6: What the Founders learned from other countries
Today on the podcast, we discover what America's Founders learned from other countries.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1712, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 5: Contributions of the United States to the world
In today's podcast we spell out some of the America's most important democratic principles.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1711, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 4: International relations and the Constitution
The Constitution grants each branch of government certain powers over international relations. Learn what these powers are on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2076, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 4: International relations and the Constitution
The Constitution grants each branch of government certain powers over international relations. Learn what these powers are on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1710, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 3: International organizations
Governments aren't the only organized bodies that operate regionally or internationally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1709, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 2: How nations interact
Today on the podcast, we explore how countries interact with each other.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1708, We the People, Lesson 28, Part 1: The nation-state and international law
How much do you know about international law? Expand your knowledge with today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1707, We the People, Lesson 27, Part 2: Problems of due process
Due process means that government must protect both the public and the individual accused of breaking the law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1706, We the People, Lesson 27, Part 1: Due process of law
Today we learn about due process of law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1705, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 5: The civil rights movement
The years 1963-64 were exciting years for the civil rights movement. Find out why on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1704, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 4: The civil rights movement
Brown v. Board of Education was a turning point in the fight against demonstration, but the struggle against inequality had just begun.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1702, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 2: Plessy v. Ferguson
On today's podcast, we learn about the case of Plessy v. Ferguson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1701, We the People, Lesson 26, Part 1: The Fourteenth Amendment
The equal protection clause was meant to protect African Americans against discrimination. It didn't work out that way. On today's episode, we learn why.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1700, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 8: Voting rights today
Responsible voting is essential to democracy. Today we discuss what citizens must do in order to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1699, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 7: Eighteen-year-olds gain the right to vote
Today on 60-Second Civics we learn how 18-year-olds gained the right to vote
60-Second Civics: Episode 1698, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 6: Native Americans and voting rights
The Indian Citizenship Act made it easy for Native Americans to vote, right? Well, not exactly.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1697, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 5: Women and the right to vote
How long did it take for women to gain the right to vote? Too long. Learn about the long struggle on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1696, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 4: The long road to voting rights
People of all races worked together to change unfair voting laws: it wasn't until the 1960s that full voting rights for African Americans were achieved.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1695, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 3: Literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and poll taxes
Laws passed after the Civil War made it easier for African American men to vote, but some states passed laws to stop them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1694, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 2: The Civil War Amendments
Today on 60-Second Civics, we learn about the Civil War Amendments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1693, We the People, Lesson 25, Part 1: Expanding the right to vote
The right to vote was limited to white men who owned property in the early republic, but change came in fits and starts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1692, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 5: How the courts decide establishment of religion cases
How do the courts decide whether a law violates the establishment clause? We find out on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1691, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 4: Can government limit the way you practice your religion?
The government can't tell you what to believe, but it can limit certain religious practices. Find out more on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 1690, We the People, Lesson 24, Part 3: Conflicts over freedom of religion
Americans generally agree that freedom of religion is an important right, but that doesn't mean the issue is without contr