60-Second Civics Print E-mail

Friday, June 22
Daily civics quiz


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A suffragist is someone who supports

a. ending prohibiiton.
b. World War I.
c. women's right to vote.
d. the right to discriminate against voters.

About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

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Get Involved: Join the conversation about each episode on Twitter. Or you can contact the show by emailing Mark Gage. Let me know what you think!

You Can Help: 60-Second Civics is supported by private donations. You can help keep the podcasts coming by donating, buying an ebook, or by writing a nice review in iTunes to help others discover the show. We love our listeners. You are the reason we created the podcast. Thank you for your kind support!

Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent Pretending," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


60-Second Civics: Episode 3287, World War I Increases Demands for Women??s Suffrage
Learn about women's right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3286, Suffragists
Learn about women's right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3285, The Nineteenth Amendment
Learn about women's right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3284, International Prohibition Movements
Learn about international prohibition.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3283, The Rise and Fall of Prohibition
Learn about prohibition.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3282, Societal Changes During Prohibition
Learn about changes in American society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3281, Prohibition Changed American Society
Learn about changes in American society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3280, The Prohibition Era Begins
Learn about prohibition in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3279, A Decade of Social Experiment
Learn about changing times in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3289, Women's Role in the American Economy Gradually Changes
Learn about women in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3288, Women Gain the Right to Vote
Learn about women's suffrage.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3278, The Prohibition Era
Learn about the Prohibition era.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3277, The Eighteenth Amendment
Learn about the Prohibition era.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3276, International Abolition of Slavery
Learn about slavery in the world.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3275, Northern Reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation
Learn about the Emancipation Proclamation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3274, The Emancipation Proclamation
Learn about the Emancipation Proclamation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3273, Abolitionists, Free Soilers, and Emancipation
Learn about Americans opinions on slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3272, "If Slavery Is Not Wrong, Nothing Is Wrong"
Learn about President Abraham Lincoln.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3271, The Corwin Amendment
Learn about the Corwin Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3270, Abolition Movements in the United States
Learn about slavery in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3269, Early Anti-Slavery Movements in America
Learn about slavery in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3268, Slavery Contradicted America's Founding Principles
Learn about slavery in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3267, Economic Context of the Civil War
Learn about the Civil War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3264, The Civil War Amendments
Learn about the Civil War Amendments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3263, Freedom of the Press around the World
Learn about the press in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3262, The English Roots of American Freedom of the Press
Learn about the press in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3261, Freedom of the Press and New Forms of Communication
Learn about the press in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3260, The Growing Power of Media
Learn about the press in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3259, The Importance of Freedom of the Press in the Early Republic
Learn about freedom of the press.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3258, Prior Restraint
Learn about prior restraint.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3257, New York Times v. Sullivan
Learn about New York Times v. Sullivan.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3256, The Alien and Sedition Acts
Learn about the Alien and Sedition Acts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3255, Libel vs. Slander
Learn about libel and slander.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3254, The Zenger Case
Learn about the First Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3253, Freedom of the Press, an Introduction
Learn about the First Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3252, A Just and a Lasting Peace
Learn about Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3251, Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
Learn about the Gettysburg Address.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3250, Abraham Lincoln and America's Founding Principles
Learn about Lincoln's political sentiments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3249, The Thirteenth Amendment
Learn about the thirteenth amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3246, Lincoln Takes Strong Action against the Rebellion
Learn about President Lincoln and the writ of habeas corpus.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3245, Suspending the Writ of Habeas Corpus During the Civil War
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney rules against Abraham Lincoln's aggressive use of war powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3244, The Prize Cases
The Prize Cases posed a constitutional test of Abraham Lincoln's use of war powers during an emergency.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3243, Congress Approves Lincoln's Actions
Critics opposed Abraham Lincoln of trampling on the Constitution, but he thought his actions were needed to save both the Union and the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3242, Lincoln Takes Immediate Action Against the Confederacy
Abraham Lincoln acted swiftly when the Civil War began, but some people thought he had gone too far.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3241, The Civil War Begins
Abraham Lincoln faced a tough first year in office: secession and war plagued the nation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3240, Abraham Lincoln Elected President
Lincoln lost his campaign for the Senate, but won the presidency two years later.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3239, Abraham Lincoln Opposes the Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act brought Abraham Lincoln back into politics and pushed the country closer to civil war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3238, Abraham Lincoln Begins His Political Career
Despite having less than one year of formal education, Abraham Lincoln became a lawyer and launched his political career.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3237, Abraham Lincoln's Early Life
Today we kick off a brief series on Abraham Lincoln.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3236, The Legacy of George Mason
On today's podcast, we learn about the legacy of George Mason, America's forgotten founder.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3235, Virginia Ratifies the Constitution
Despite George Mason's objections, Virginia ratified the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3234, George Mason at the Virginia Ratification Convention
George Mason made one fateful error at the Virginia Ratification Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3233, George Mason Refuses to Sign the Constitution
Why didn't the Founders add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution at first?
60-Second Civics: Episode 3232, George Mason Proposes the Bill of Rights
On today's podcast, George Mason opens Pandora's Box during the final days of the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3231, Bernard Bailyn on Slavery in the Founding Period
Learn about slavery in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3230, The New York Manumission Society
Learn about the New York Manumission Society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3229, Slavery in the North
Learn about slavery in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3228, Providence Punishes National Sins by National Calamities
Learn about the Founders and slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3227, George Mason's Attack on Slavery
Learn about the Founders and slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3226, Jefferson and Madison on Slavery
Learn about the Founders and slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3225, Mason and Washington on Slavery
Learn about two Founders' views on slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3224, Frequent Recurrence to Fundamental Principles
Learn about the Virginia Declaration of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3223, Important Principles in the Virginia Declaration of Rights
Learn about the Virginia Declaration of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3222, The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Learn about the Virginia Declaration of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3221, The Most Influential Constitutional Document in American History
Learn about George Mason.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3220, The Fairfax Resolves
Learn about George Mason.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3219, George Mason's Early Life
Learn about George Mason.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3218, George Mason, the Reluctant Statesman
Learn about George Mason.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3217, George Mason, America's Forgotten Founder
Learn about George Mason.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3216, George Washington's Rules of Civility
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3215, George Washington's Views on Slavery
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3214, George Washington Warns Against Party and Faction
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3213, How George Washington Established the Authority of the Presidency
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3212, George Washington Relied on the Advice of Others
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3211, George Washington as President
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3210, George Washington, the Reluctant President
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3209, A Strong Executive
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3208, George Washington on Patriotism
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3207, Washington's Support for Civilian Control of Government
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3206, The Newburgh Conspiracy
Learn about the Newburgh Conspiracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3205, George Washington the Soldier
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3204, George Washington's Early Life
Learn about George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3203, James Madison and the Bill of Rights
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3202, Madison Supports Freedom of Religion in Virginia
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3201, James Madison as a Champion for Religious Freedom
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3200, James Madison Fears About Slavery
Learn about James Madison's opinions on slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3199, James Madison on Slavery
Learn about James Madison's opinions on slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3198, James Madison's Evolving Opinion of Political Parties
Learn about Madison's views on political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3197, Mr. Madison's Party
Learn about James Madison's political party.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3196, James Madison on Partisan Politics
Learn about Madison's views on partisanship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3195, If Men Were Angels, No Government Would Be Needed
Learn about the separation of powers in government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3194, James Madison's Federalist 10
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3193, James Madison's Federalist Essays
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3192, James Madison, the Convention's Most Active Delegate
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3191, James Madison's Views Did Not Always Prevail
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3190, James Madison Drafts the Virginia Plan
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3189, James Madison, Scholar and Politician
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3188, James Madison's Early Career
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3187, James Madison, Father of the Constitution
Learn about James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3186, Participation in Government
Learn about citizens participating in government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3183, Civic Participation
Learn about civic participation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3182, Citizenship as an Office of Government
Learn about citizens' roles.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3181, Civil Disobedience
Learn about civil disobedience.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3180, Responsibilities of Citizens
Learn about citizens and their responsibilities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3179, Some Rights Can Be Limited
Learn about the limitation of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3178, Personal, Political, and Economic Rights
Learn about types of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3177, Legal Permanent Residents
Learn about living legally in a country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3176, Citizenship
Learn about citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3175, The Spread of American Ideas
Learn about the spread of American ideas.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3174, Constitutional Powers to Deal With Other Countries
Learn about shared powers of U.S. government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3173, The United Nations
Learn about the United Nations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3172, How Nations Interact
Learn about nations interactions with each other.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3171, International Law
Learn about international law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3170, Nation-States
Learn about nation-states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3169, The Indispensable Foundation of Individual Freedom
Learn about rights of individuals.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3168, Due Process in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments
Learn about due process.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3167, Due Process of Law
Learn about due process.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3166, The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
Learn about the Civil Rights Movement.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3165, The Civil Rights Movement
Learn about Rosa Parks and other activists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3164, Brown v. Board of Education
Learn about Brown v. Board of Education.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3163, Plessy v. Ferguson
Learn about Plessy v. Ferguson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3162, Unfair Treatment of African Americans
Learn about segregation and discrimination in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3161, Voting in the States
Learn about the voting in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3160, Voting Age Lowered to Eighteen
Learn about the voting age in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3159, Native Americans Gain the Right to Vote
Learn about voting rights in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3158, Women's Struggle for the Right to Vote
Learn about voting rights in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3157, The Long Struggle for Voting Rights for African Americans
Learn about voting rights in America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3156, The Right to Vote Denied to African Americans
Learn about voter suppression laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3155, Civil War Amendments
Learn about Civil War amendments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3154, Dorr Rebellion
Learn about the Dorr Rebellion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3153, The Right to Vote Severely Restricted in the Early Republic
Learn about the early right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3152, Religion in Public Education
Learn about religion in public education.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3151, Limits to Free Exercise of Religion
Learn about freedom of religion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3150, Conflicts about Freedom of Religion
Learn about freedom of religion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3149, Freedom of Religion
Learn about freedom of religion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3148, Tinker v. Des Moines
Learn about Tinker v. Des Moines.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3147, Limits to Freedom of Expression
Learn about freedom of expression.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3146, How Freedom of Expression Benefits Democracy
Learn about freedom of expression.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3145, Two Benefits of Freedom of Expression
Learn about freedom of expression.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3144, Freedom of Expression
Learn about freedom of expression.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3143, How Supreme Court Justices Decide Cases
Learn about influences on Supreme Court justices.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3142, Modernism or Instrumentalism
Learn about the modernism method of interpreting the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3141, Fundamental Principles
Learn about the fundamental principles method of Constitutional interpretation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3140, Original Intent
Learn about the original intent method of Constitutional interpretation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3139, Textualism, Literalism, or Strict Construction
Learn about a strict construction method of interpreting the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3138, Four Methods of Constitutional Interpretation
Learn about interpreting the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3137, Marshall's Reasoning in the Marbury Case
Learn about the power of judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3136, Marbury v. Madison
Learn about the case of Marbury v. Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3135, Judicial Review over State Governments
Learn about the supreme law of the land.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3134, Who Interprets the Constitution?
Learn about interpreting the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3133, Advantages of Political Parties
Learn about positive effects of political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3132, The Revolution of 1800
Learn about the presidential election of 1800.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3131, The Alien and Sedition Acts
Learn about the Alien and Sedition Acts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3130, John Jay's Unpopular Treaty
Learn about John Jay's treaty with Great Britain.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3129, Americans Take Sides in the War between France and Great Britain
Learn about the war between France and Great Britain.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3128, The Bank of the United States
Learn about the national bank.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3127, Hamilton's Idea for a National Bank
Learn about the finances of the new nation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3126, Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Learn about the differing views of Hamilton and Jefferson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3125, The Rise of Political Parties
Learn about Framers and political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3124, The Bill of Rights
Learn about the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3123, The Creation of the Judicial Branch
Learn about different levels of courts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3122, Washington's Cabinet
Learn about Washington's cabinet.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3121, The Nation's First President
Learn about President George Washington.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3120, Compromise on a Bill of Rights
Learn about disagreements about a bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3119, Would the National Government Have Too Much Power?
Learn about the powers of the national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3118, Would the Constitution Maintain Republican Government?
Learn about disagreements about the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3117, Three Basic Disagreements over Ratification
Learn about disagreements between Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3116, Meet the Anti-Federalists
Learn about the Anti-Federalists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3115, Meet the Federalists
Learn about those who supported the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3114, Ratifying the Constitution
Learn about the special conventions that voted on the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3113, James Madison's Plan for Ratification
Learn about the ratification of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3112, The Balance of Power
Learn about powers given to government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3111, The Supremacy Clause
Learn about the supremacy clause.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3110, Constitutional Limits on the Power of Government
Learn about powers distributed to governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3109, Federalism in Practice
Learn about a federal system of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3108, Federalism
Learn about a federal system of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3107, The People Are Sovereign
Learn about sovereignty.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3106, Unitary and Confederal Systems
Learn about types of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3105, The Supremacy Clause
Learn about the hierarchy of law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3104, Original and Appellate Jurisdiction
Learn about types of jurisdiction.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3103, The Judicial Branch
Learn about Article III of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3102, Origin of the Electoral College
Learn about the electoral college.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3101, The Framers Debate How to Select a President
Learn about regulations on electing presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3100, Impeachment
Learn about the process of impeachment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3099, The President Shares Power with Congress
Learn about shared powers in the national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3098, The Powers of the Executive Branch
Learn about the executive branch.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3097, Checks on the Lawmaking Powers of Congress
Learn about checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3096, Limits on the Power of Congress
Learn about the limits and powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3095, General Powers of Congress
Learn about enumerated powers given to Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3094, Enumerated Powers
Learn about powers granted to the national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3093, Describing the Powers of Congress
Learn about the language used in the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3092, The Problem With General Language in the Constitution
Learn about the debate over what powers to give Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3091, A Strong Government, But Not Too Strong
Learn about the Framers' feelings on a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3090, Weak Congress under the Articles of Confederation
Learn about the early legislative branch.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3089, Slavery Compromises Delayed Conflict
Learn about compromises allowing slavery to continue.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3088, Compromise on Tariffs and Slavery
Learn about compromises made on slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3087, The Dilemma Over Slavery
Learn about the debate on slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3086, Conflict Over Tariffs at the Philadelphia Convention
Learn about the different opinions on tariffs.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3085, Economic Differences Between the North and South
Learn about the economies of the North and the South.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3084, One Person, One Vote in State Legislatures
Learn about representation in the legislature.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3083, The Compromise That Passed by One Vote
Learn about the Great Compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3082, The Great Compromise
Learn about the compromise between the small and large states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3081, The New Jersey Plan
Learn about the New Jersey Plan.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3080, Controversy over the Virginia Plan
Learn about what people disagreed on regarding the Virginia Plan.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3079, The Virginia Plan
Learn about a proposed plan for government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3078, The Conflict over Representation
Learn about conflicts over state representation in Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3077, Basic Principles of the U.S. Constitution
Learn about the goals of the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3076, Secrecy at the Philadelphia Convention
Learn about the agreement to secrecy by the Framers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3075, Gaining the Cooperation of Small States
Learn about the proceedings of the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3074, The Framers Agree to Write a New Constitution
Learn about the organization of the Constitutional Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3073, Who Did Not Attend the Philadelphia Convention?
Learn about the men who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3072, Franklin and Morris
Learn about two important Framers of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3071, Madison and Washington
Learn about two important Framers of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3070, The Philadelphia Convention
Learn about the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3069, Shays' Rebellion
Learn about Shays' Rebellion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3068, Financial Problems Foreshadow Shays' Rebellion
Learn about the problems of early America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3067, Property Rights Under Threat in the Early Republic
Learn about how people began to organize in the new government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3066, Trade Disputes in the Early Republic
Learn about how powers the national government did not have.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3065, Treatment of Loyalists Caused Problems with the British
Learn about what happened to Loyalists after the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3064, No Power to Tax Under the Articles
Learn about the weak national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3063, Accomplishments under the Articles of Confederation
Learn about some of the positive work done under the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3062, How the Articles of Confederation Organized the National Government
Learn about the organization of the new national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3061, Creating the Articles of Confederation
Learn about the Founders' considerations when creating a government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3060, The Need for a National Government
Learn about the creation of a national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3059, Rights Protected in State Bills of Rights
Learn about the rights protected by states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3058, The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Learn about the Virginia Declaration of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3057, State Bills of Rights
Learn about declarations of rights at the state level.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3056, What Made the Massachusetts Constitution Different
Learn about the influence of the Massachusetts constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3055, The Massachusetts Constitution
Learn about the Massachusetts Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3054, Problems with Legislative Supremacy
Learn about the post-Revolutionary War state governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3053, More Basic Principles of State Constitutions
Learn about the foundational ideas of state government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3052, Basic Principles of State Constitutions
Learn about the foundational ideas of state government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3051, State Constitutions after the Revolution
Learn about the formation of state governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3050, Independence at Last
Learn about the end of the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3049, Eliza Lucas Pinckney
Learn about Eliza Lucas Pinckney.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3048, Setbacks for the American Cause
Learn about the struggles faced by Americans.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3047, French Support Helps Turn the Tide of the War
Learn about French aid to the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3045, The Battle of Saratoga
Learn about the Battle of Saratoga.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3044, The Battles of Trenton and Princeton
Learn about Washington crossing the Delaware River.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3043, Victory or Defeat?
Learn about early fighting of the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3042, Our Nation's First Constitution
The Articles of Confederation was our nation's first constitution, but it had its problems.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3041, The Shot Heard 'Round the World
Learn about the beginnings of the war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3040, Loyalists in the American Revolution
Learn about divided opinions in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3039, A Country Divided by Revolution
Learn about the beginning of the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3038, An Absolute Tyranny
Learn about the wrongs of the Crown against the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3037, The Right to Revolution
Learn about the ideas in the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3036, Natural Rights and the Declaration of Independence
Learn about the protection of natural rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3035, The Second Paragraph of the Declaration
Learn about the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3034, How the Declaration of Independence Is Organized
Learn about the Declaration's organization.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3033, A New Nation
Learn about the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3032, Writing the Declaration of Independence
Learn about the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3031, A State of Rebellion
Learn about the beginning of the rebellion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3030, The Revolutionary War Begins
Learn about the start of the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3029, The Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party
Learn about two revolutionary events in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3028, The Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Learn about resistance groups in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3027, Committees of Correspondence
Learn about how colonists began to organize against England.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3026, No Taxation Without Representation
Learn about growing unrest in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3025, The Boston Tea Party
Learn about the Tea Act.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3024, The Stamp Act and the Quartering Act
Learn about laws Great Britain imposed on the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3023, The Sugar Act
Learn about the Sugar Act of 1764.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3022, Britain Tightens Its Grip on the Colonies
Learn about increased colonial regulation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3021, Salutary Neglect
Learn about the hands-off approach of England governing the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3020, Government in the American Colonies
Learn about the structure of colonial government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3019, Features of the American Colonies
Learn about colonial government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3018, Government of the Thirteen Colonies
Learn about the beginning of the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3017, The English Bill of Rights
Learn about rights protected by the English Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3016, The Petition of Right
Learn about the Petition of Right of 1628.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3015, Parliament
Learn about Parliament.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3014, Impact of the Magna Carta
Learn about the influence of the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3013, The Magna Carta
Learn about the ideas in the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3012, Sharing of Power in the Feudal System
Learn about the structure of a feudal system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3011, William the Conqueror
Learn about feudalism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3010, English Law and the American Colonies
Learn about British government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3009, The Rights of Englishmen
Learn about rights granted to Englishmen.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3008, Checking the Power of Congress
Learn about checks on Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3007, Checks and Balances
Learn about the legislative branch.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3006, Three Branches of Government
Learn about the creation of the branches of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3005, Divided and Balanced Power
Learn about the separated branches of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3004, Constitutional Governments Limit Power
Learn about some protections of the American Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3003, A Constitution Is a Higher Law
Learn about constitutional government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3002, What Constitutional Government Means
Learn about the definition of a constitutional government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3001, A Basic Introduction to Constitutions
Learn what a constitution is.
60-Second Civics: Episode 3000, Lessons from the Roman Republic
Learn about how the ideas of civic virtue influenced the Founders.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2999, Civic Virtue in the American Colonies
Learn about the spread of republican values.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2998, James Madison on Civic Virtue
Learn about James Madison's ideas.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2997, Civic Virtue Makes Republican Government Possible
Learn about the priorities of Roman and American government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2996, The American Cincinnatus
Learn about George Washington's civic virtue.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2995, Civic Virtue and Cincinnatus
Learn about the Roman hero, Cincinnatus.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2994, A Republic, Not a Direct Democracy
Learn about James Madison's views on republican government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2993, Republican Government vs. Direct Democracy
Learn about the differences between a republican government and a direct democracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2992, Would Republican Government Work in the Colonies?
Learn about how republican government functions best.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2991, More Advantages of Republican Government
Learn about how republican government works.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2990, Advantages of Representative Government
Learn about republican government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2989, Republican Government
Learn about government by citizens.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2988, The Social Contract
Learn about how social contracts regulate society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2987, Life, Liberty, and Property
Learn about John Locke's natural rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2986, John Locke and the State of Nature
Learn about the basics of John Locke's ideas.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2985, John Locke and America's Founders
Learn about ideas on natural rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2984, Founders and Framers
Learn about influences on the Founders.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2983, Hardworking, Simple People
Learn about rights the colonists had before the Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2982, Not Everyone Was Allowed to Vote
Learn about voting in colonial America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2981, Class Difference in the American Colonies
Learn about the economic classes in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2980, Diverse American Colonies
Learn about the diversity of the colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2979, Slavery in the American Colonies
Learn about slavery in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2978, A High Standard of Living
Learn about the quality of life in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2977, Self-Sufficiency in the American Colonies
Learn about the lives of colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2976, Cities and Farms in Colonial America
Learn about how colonists lived and worked.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2975, A Large Country
Learn about where Europeans settled.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2974, Early America
Learn about Native American tribes.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2973, Evaluating Our Commitment to Fundamental Principles
Learn about Founders' commitment to debate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2972, Citizen Participation Is Required
Learn about the importance of our values.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2971, The Revolutions of 1989
Learn about revolutions against communism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2970, Ideas Do Matter
Learn about the importance of ideas.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2969, Frequent Recurrence to Fundamental Principles
Learn about our country of ideas.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2968, Technology and Globalization
Learn about technology's affect on the global economy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2967, Farther, Faster, Cheaper, and Deeper
Learn about the migration of workers internationally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2966, Growth of World Trade
Learn about globalization.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2965, Influence Begins With Knowledge
Learn about America's role in the world.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2964, Your Power Over International Affairs
Learn about ways to engage internationally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2963, How to Influence Foreign Policy
Learn about Americans' role in foreign policy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2962, International Court of Justice
Learn about the World Court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2961, Political Divisions Hamper the UN Security Council
Learn about global organizations and relations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2960, America??s Prominent Role in the United Nations
Learn about global organizations and relations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2959, Origins of the United Nations
Learn about the origins of the United Nations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2958, The United Nations
Learn about the goals of the United Nations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2957, The Amistad Case
Learn about the revolt on the Amistad vessel.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2956, Limitations of International Law
Learn about the limitations of international law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2955, International Law and Individuals
Learn about individuals' relationship with international law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2954, International Law
Learn about international law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2953, The President's Authority Over Diplomacy
Learn about diplomatic relations with other countries.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2952, Historical Wrangling over the President's War Powers
Learn about war powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2951, Treaty-Making Power and the States
Learn about how the states play a role in treaty-making.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2950, The Origin of Treaty-Making Powers
Learn about the origins of treaty-making powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2949, The Shared Power to Make Treaties
Learn about how treaties are made.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2948, Letters of Marque and Reprisal
Learn about letters of marque and reprisal.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2947, The War-Making Powers of Congress
Learn about the ability to declare war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2946, Distrust of Standing Armies
Learn about the distrust of standing armies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2945, Powers of Congress to Deal with Other Nations
Learn about the powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2944, Is Isolationism a Realistic Option?
Learn about America's engagement with the world.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2943, A Strained Alliance with France
Learn about the United States' international relationships after becoming independent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2942, International Involvement Is Inescapable
Learn about how countries lend each other assistance.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2941, International Relations
Learn about international relations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2940, The Constitutional Convention as a Model of Civil Discourse
Learn about how delegates to the Constitutional Convention were civil.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2939, Civil Discourse
Learn about civil discourse in a democracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2938, The Role of Government
Learn about Americans' relationship with government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2937, Opportunities and Perils in the Information Age
Learn about social media's influence on civic awareness.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2936, Electronic Communications and Participation
Learn about technologies influence on citizens.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2935, A Nation of Immigrants
Learn about America's great diversity.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2934, E Pluribus Unum
Learn about the beginnings of a diverse society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2933, Demographic Change
Learn about America's ever-evolving demography.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2932, Changing America
Learn about America's changing population.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2931, Two UN Covenants
Learn about covenants protecting human rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2930, The UN Declaration of Human Rights and Its Limitations
Learn about the limitations of the Declaration of Human Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2929, Extended Rights in the Universal Declaration
Learn about the strengthening of human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2928, American Influence on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Learn about the American Influence on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2927, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Learn about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2926, Universal Human Rights
Learn about the renewed focus on human rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2925, The Japanese Rights and Duties of the People
Learn about Japan's rights and duties of the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2924, Charters of Human Rights
Learn about some of the rights guaranteed by charters of human rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2923, Constitutional Courts
Learn about judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2922, The Bill of Rights and Judicial Review
Learn about the worldwide influence of the American Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2921, The Power of the Bill of Rights
Learn about how the Bill of Rights protects all people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2920, Latin American Constitutionalism
Learn about how Latin American government has been influenced by the American model.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2919, American Federalism
Learn about how federalism supports limited government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2918, The Perils of Presidentialism
Learn about the risks associated with presidential systems.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2917, Fear of a Strong Executive
Learn about the difference between American presidents and other heads of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2916, Presidential Government
Learn about the American presidential system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2915, Written Constitutions
Learn about the development of written constitutions in democracies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2914, Influence of the Declaration of Independence
Learn about the declaration of independences influenced by the American declaration.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2913, Vaclav Havel
Learn about Vaclav Havel's admiration for American democracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2912, American Ideas Spread
Learn about America's influence on other governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2911, Influence of American Constitutional Principles
Learn about America's influence on the world.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2910, LGBT Rights
Learn about the LGBT community's fight for its rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2909, Equal Rights Amendment
Learn about the Equal Rights Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2908, Native American Activism
Learn about issues that affect Native American people and communities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2907, The Struggle for Civil Rights Continues
Learn about the civil rights movement.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2906, In Defense of Civil Disobedience
Learn why some defend civil disobedience.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2905, Criticism of Civil Disobedience
Learn why some are critics of civil disobedience.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2904, Civil Disobedience
Learn how civil disobedience can play a role in civic engagement.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2903, Shelby County v. Holder
Learn how Shelby County v. Holder changed the Voting Rights Act.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2902, Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a step in the right direction, but it did not protect voting rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2901, Three Lesser-Known Civil Rights Acts
Today we learn about three lesser-known civil rights acts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2900, The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Today we learn about the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2899, The Civil Rights Movement Gains Support
In 1963, the civil rights movement gained momentum.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2898, Rosa Parks and MLK
On today's podcast: The Montgomery bus boycott
60-Second Civics: Episode 2897, Nonviolent Direct Action
The civil rights movement used nonviolent direct action inspired by Mohandas Gandhi.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2896, Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were designed to limit the rights and freedoms of African Americans.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2895, Desegregation and Violence
Violence plagued the South in the years following desegregation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2894, Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education was not the end of the struggle against segregation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2893, Segregation
Today we learn about segregation and Brown v. Board of Education.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2892, Commitment to the Common Good
The common good was a key feature of classical republicanism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2891, Enlightened Self-Interest
Today we learn about enlightened self-interest.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2890, Making It Easier to Vote
According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, 21 states now allow some form of electronic voting.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2889, Absentee Voting
There is a growing number of ways to vote in most states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2888, Voting
In order for popular sovereignty and representative government to work, citizens have to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2887, Presidential Commissions
More ways of influencing the national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2886, Participation in National Government
You can have an effect on national politics. Learn how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2885, Involvement in State Government
Yes, you too can be involved in state government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2884, Local Governments
Today we talk about the benefits of participating in local government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2883, Service Organizations and NGOs
You've heard of Kiwanis, Jaycees, and Lions Clubs, but what do these organizations do? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2882, Religious and Social Organizations
Learn how religious and social organizations contribute to civic life on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2881, Voluntary Associations
Today we learn what Alexis de Tocqueville noticed about American civic life.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2880, Participating in Civic Life
Today we learn about some of the benefits to participation in civic life.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2879, Undocumented Immigrants
Undocumented immigration is one of the most controversial issues in American politics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2878, Responsibilities Shared by Citizens and Noncitizens
Everyone who lives in the United States, both citizens and noncitizens, have certain responsibilities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2877, Noncitizen Voting
Should legal permanent residents be allowed to vote? On this podcast, we look at both sides of the issue.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2876, Voting and Citizenship
Being a citizen didn't always mean that a person had the right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2875, Most Rights Apply to Everyone
Most rights in the United States apply to everyone who lives here.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2874, Voluntarily Renouncing U.S. Citizenship
Voluntarily renouncing U.S. citizenship has serious consequences.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2873, How to Lose U.S. Citizenship
Today on 60-Second Civics we learn how a person can lose U.S. citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2872, Controversy Surrounding Dual Citizenship
On today's podcast, we explore arguments for and against dual national citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2871, Dual Citizenship
What is dual citizenship?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2870, Tribal Recognition
The process of officially recognizing a Native American tribe can take decades to complete.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2869, Indian Citizenship Act
Today we learn about the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2868, Vacillating Policy Toward Indian Tribes
The United States vacillated between respecting Native American sovereignty and seeking to dismantle tribal governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2867, Naturalization
Today we learn about naturalization.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2866, Unity Within Diversity
The Fourteenth Amendment and citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2865, Citizenship and the Founders
One of the primary goals of Framers like James Madison was that Americans felt loyalty to the United States, not just their individual states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2864, Citizenship in Early America
Americans originally thought of themselves as citizens only of their states, not of the United States as whole.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2863, Enlightened Self-Interest
What is enlightened self-interest? We'll find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2862, Alexis de Tocqueville
Today we learn how Alexis de Tocqueville thought Americans had reconciled self-interest with civic participation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2861, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's thoughts on the benefits of education for citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2860, Aristotle, Cicero, and Locke
Today we explore natural republicanism and natural rights philosophy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2859, Civic Virtue and Self-Interest
The Founders stressed the importance of religion and education in reconciling the need for both civic virtue and self-interest.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2858, Natural Rights Philosophy and Citizenship
Today we explore how natural rights philosophy influenced America's Founders.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2857, Citizenship and the Common Good
Early on, Americans experienced their interdependence and their need to work for the common good.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2856, The Death Penalty
Today's podcast explores the death penalty in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2855, The Right to Appeal
If you are convicted of a crime, you have the right to appeal your conviction.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2854, Excessive Fines and Cruel and Unusual Punishments
Today we learn about the protections of the Eighth Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2853, Double Jeopardy
Today we explore a bedrock principle of American justice: double jeopardy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2852, Jury Verdicts and Representation
In England, verdicts in criminal cases had to be unanimous. That changed when English law was adapted by Americans.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2851, Two Problems With Juries
Today we explore two problems with jury trials in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2850, Procedural Rights During Trial
What are your procedural rights during a criminal trial? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2849, Speedy Public Trial
Why should trials be speedy or public? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2848, Trial by Media
Today, criminal defendants in high-profile cases face another sort of trial: trial by media.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2847, The Right to Counsel
Today, the podcast explores the right to counsel and why it is necessary in an adversary system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2846, Bail
What is bail? What is its purpose? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2845, Indictment
Learn all about indictments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2844, Plea Agreements
Plea agreements are more common than you might think.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2843, Protecting Rights Before Trial
The Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments protect people accused of crimes between arrest and trial.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2842, Federalism and Criminal Procedure
The majority of rights in the Bill of Rights focus on people accused of crime.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2841, Procedural Rights
Today we learn the fundamental premise of the American system of justice.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2840, Do Miranda Warnings Handcuff Police?
Do Miranda warnings handcuff the police? We explore the topic on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2839, Miranda Rights
You have the right to remain silent. Sound familiar? Today we discuss the Miranda warning.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2838, James Madison and Self-Incrimination
James Madison originally wanted the protections of the self-incrimination clause to be more expansive.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2837, Self-Incrimination and Public Proceedings
What does it mean to "take the Fifth"? We find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2836, Right Against Self-Incrimination
The Fifth Amendment protects you from being forced to testify against yourself.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2835, Use Immunity
What is "use immunity"? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2834, When Warrants Are Not Required
Today we learn when warrants are not required.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2833, Alternatives to the Exclusionary Rule
Today we explore three suggestions for dealing with police misconduct that avoids losing valuable evidence in court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2832, Deterring Police Misconduct
The exclusionary rule was designed to deter police misconduct.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2831, Mapp v. Ohio
The 1961 case if Mapp v. Ohio extended the exclusionary rule to state courts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2830, The Exclusionary Rule
The 1914 Supreme Court case Weeks v. United States established the very important "exclusionary rule" that determines how evidence is used in court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2829, Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement
Though required in most cases, there are specific circumstances in which a warrant is not necessary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2828, Probable Cause
Probable cause, which must be proven to obtain a warrant, is required to meet a specific set of criteria.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2827, Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
A protection against unreasonable searches and seizures is necessary for a free society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2826, Fourth Amendment and Technology
New advances in technology are constantly changing the way we understand our right to privacy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2825, Privacy
The Fourth Amendment does not make specific claims about privacy, but America has evolved to uphold certain standards.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2824, Fourth Amendment
The Fourth Amendment is concerned with how authorities conduct criminal investigations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2823, Search and Seizure
John Adams and the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 helped shape the right to privacy we know today.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2822, John Adams and James Otis
John Adams helped lawyer James Otis rise to public prominence and become a figure of the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2821, James Otis Fights General Warrants
In 1761, Colonial lawyer James Otis attempted to fight parliament's request for a new general warrant.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2820, General Warrants and the American Revolution
The British government's use of general warrants on the American colonies was part of the spark leading to the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2819, General Warrants in the Colonies
Though general warrants were illegal under British common law, that didn't stop Parliament from implementing them in the colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2818, A Man???s Home Is His Castle
The English common law observance of the right to privacy in one's home created the phrase "a man's home is his castle."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2817, Freedom of Association and American Citizenship
Scholar Alexis de Tocqueville had many keen observations about the implications of the right to assemble on American society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2816, Discrimination and Government Interference
If an organization meets certain criteria, it must follow government anti-discrimination laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2815, The Right to Associate
The right to associate, while not explicitly stated in the Constitution, has evolved through court precedence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2814, Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions
Court precedence has determined that the right to assemble may be limited if certain time, place, and manner conditions are met.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2813, Civil Rights Movements and Assembly
The civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century is an example of a group successfully petitioning the government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2812, Women and the Right to Petition
Throughout United States history, women have petitioned the government for a variety of purposes.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2811, Silencing Critics
Several times in the past, the government has silenced petitioners. The treatment of Bonus Army is one example of this.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2810, The Gag Rule and Slavery
In the 1800's, the American political system enacted something known as a "gag rule" in order to maintain slavery in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2809, Adderley v. Florida
The right to petition is broad in scope, as established by the 1966 case Adderley v. Florida.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2808, Petitioning in the Colonies
The right to petition in the United States was carried over from the British parliament
60-Second Civics: Episode 2807, The Importance of the Rights to Assemble and Petition
The right to petition was a fundamental building block of the early United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2806, The Rights to Petition and Associate
The right to associate, while not mentioned in the First Amendment, has evolved through Supreme Court cases.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2805, Freedom of Assembly
The right of a group to assemble is protected by the First Amendment and helps create governmental change.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2804, The Rights to Assemble, Petition, and Associate
These elements of the First Amendment allow citizens to hold the government accountable for their policies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2803, The Brandenburg Test
This critical Supreme Court decisions helped establish our modern understanding of free speech.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2802, More Limitations on the Power to Restrict Speech
In order for the government to fairly regulate free speech, they must observe certain ethical guidelines.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2801, Limitations on the Power to Restrict Speech
Though the government can regulate certain kinds of speech, there are limitations on just how far those regulations can go.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2800, How Government Regulates Speech
The government regulates speech through regulations, prohibitions, and punishment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2799, More Exceptions to Free Speech
These continued restrictions to free speech include obscenity laws, as well as time, place, and manner restrictions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2798, Exceptions to Free Speech
Libel, defamation, and incitement to crime are all forms of speech not protected by the First Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2797, Limitations to Free Speech
The freedom of speech does have its limits, and many feel certain restrictions are necessary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2796, Suppression of Unpopular Ideas
Throughout United States history, the freedom of speech has faced several challenges.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2795, John Peter Zenger, Part 2
The Zenger trial set precedents for jury nullification in addition to freedom of the press.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2794, John Peter Zenger, Part 1
The trial of John Peter Zenger, a colonial printer, set a precedent for today's libel laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2793, A Free Press in the Early Republic
The First Amendment was created in part to help ease fears that the government would manipulate the press.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2792, Seditious Libel
In colonial America, the press was heavily restricted by the British Crown.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2791, Libel in the Colonial Era
The early American colonies had specific ideas about the freedom of speech.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2790, English Origins of Free Expression
How early British thought influenced American views on the freedom of speech.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2789, Benefits of Freedom of Expression, Part 2
In addition to promoting individual liberties, the freedom of expression helps boost representative government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2788, Benefits of Freedom of Expression, Part 1
The freedom of expression can benefit the people in many ways.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2787, Arguments for Free Expression
The Founders' multi-faceted logic for ensuring the right to freedom of speech.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2785, Justice O'Connor on Free Exercise
The Supreme Court case Rosenberger v. University of Virginia helped establish the idea of "bedrock principles."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2784, Two Cases Test the Free Exercise Clause
These two Supreme Court cases helped establish the bounds of the free exercise clause.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2783, Testing Whether a Law Violates the Free Exercise Clause
In order to determine if a law is in violation of the free exercise clause, the courts must ask themselves certain questions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2782, Limiting Free Exercise of Religion
In certain cases, the court will find it necessary to interfere with the free exercise of religion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2781, The Free Exercise Clause
The free exercise clause is another element of the First Amendment that protects religious freedoms.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2780, Arguments over the Establishment Clause
The continuing disagreements about the separation of church and state.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2779, Interpreting the Establishment Clause
People hold differing views about what rights the establishment clause gives and takes away.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2778, The Establishment Clause
How this important piece of the Constitution came to be, and how it has been interpreted over time.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2777, Freedom of Religion
A changing religious landscape in the 18th century helped shape the First Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2776, Separation of Church and State
How the United States established itself as a haven for religious freedom.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2775, Religious Conflicts in Europe
Before the United States was founded, religious turmoil in Europe paved a path for a religiously free nation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2774, Ignorance of the Bill of Rights
A 1991 survey of Americans revealed that not many know about the history and significance of the Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2773, A Nauseous Project
Though we take it for granted today, the Bill of Rights presented many challengers to our Founders.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2772, The Constitution As a Bill of Rights
In addition to amendments, the Constitution itself was written to protect certain freedoms.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2771, Third Amendment
The Third Amendment ensures that soldiers won't be quartered in civilian homes during peacetime.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2770, Second Amendment
How the Second Amendment continues to be interpreted in many ways.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2769, Positive and Negative Rights
These categories of rights determine whether the government must act or be restricted.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2768, Economic and Political Rights
The right to own property, to work, and to be civically engaged.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2767, Personal Rights
Understanding our freedom to think, act, and speak as we choose.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2766, Rights
What does it mean to have rights? Where do our rights come from?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2765, State Bills of Rights
How each state developed its own constitution and bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2764, Limitations on Government in the Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights was a trailblazing document that informed our Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2763, The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Virginia was the first state to include a bill of rights in its constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2762, Ordinary Legislation vs. a Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights of 1689 is important for understanding the evolution of bills of rights in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2761, Early Documents That Established Rights
Before the U.S. Bill of Rights, there were a few other documents that helped pave the way for the protection of individual liberties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2760, The Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments
These final pieces of the Bill of Rights deal with crime, punishment, and states rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2759, The Sixth and Seventh Amendments
Your right to an attorney, a fair trial, and more in these two amendments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2758, The Fourth and Fifth Amendments
These Constitutional Amendments help protect the rights of those convicted of a crime
60-Second Civics: Episode 2757, The First Three Amendments
These three Constitutional amendments protect some of our most fundamental rights as citizens.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2756, The Bill of Rights
What is included in the Bill of Rights and how does it protect our individual liberties?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2755, State Action on Climate Change
How are the states reacting to climate change and implementing environmental policy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2754, Referendum and Recall
These two processes can create new laws, and remove elected officials from power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2753, Ballot Initiatives
Initiative, referendum, recall are a trio of methods, begun during the Progressive era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which allow citizens to participate in direct democracy in their states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2752, Laboratories of Democracy
How state laws can break new ground for country-wide change.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2751, Johnson vs. Nixon
How these two mid-century presidents changed the relationship between federal and local spending.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2750, How the Depression Changed Government
The Great Depression changed the relationship between the federal government and state governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2749, Grants in Aid
How federal and state cooperation raised funds and moved the U.S. capital.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2748, Interstate Commerce and Drug Policy
How federal and local authorities conflict over commerce and drug regulations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2747, Regulation of Commerce
Regulation of commerce cases demonstrate the kinds of issues that are common in America's system of shared governmental authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2746, State Constitutional Amendments
State constitutional amendments often reflect state responses to policy debates occurring throughout the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2745, State Constitutions
Since the first state constitutions were adopted in 1776, state constitutional conventions have resulted in new constitutions being adopted some 144 times.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2744, Home Rule
From the Gilded Age to Dillon's Rule: How local governments have changed over time.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2743, Municipal Governments
There are three broad categories of local governments in the United States: Counties, municipalities, and special districts.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2742, County Governments
State constitutions give legislatures power to create local governments, which receive charters, or grants of authority, to carry out a wide range of governmental responsibilities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2741, Lieutenant Governors
Lieutenant governors have been considered the fifth wheel of American politics. In reality, they have important responsibilities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2740, State Executive and Legislative Branches
Learn about the executive and legislative branches of state government on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2739, State Legislatures
Every state has executive, legislative and judicial branches.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2738, State Bills of Rights
State constitutions have a lot in common.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2737, The Police Powers of States
Learn about the police powers of states on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2736, Police Powers Explained
What are the police powers of a state? Hint: they involve more than policing.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2735, States Play an Important Role
States play an important role in the structure and operation of the U.S. government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2734, States and the National Government
State governments and reserved powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2733, Changing the Size of the Supreme Court
Congress can change the size of the Supreme Court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2732, Kelo v. New London
Kelo v. New London and eminent domain.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2731, Five Rules of Justiciability
Do you know the five rules of justiciability? You will after this podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2730, Limiting the Role of Judges
The Framers of the Constitution wanted federal courts to have limited jurisdiction.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2729, Congress and States Check the Supreme Court
Both Congress and the states can check the power of the Supreme Court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2728, Presidents and Enforcement of Supreme Court Decisions
Sometimes, presidents balk at having to enforce Supreme Court decisions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2727, Presidential Influence Over the Supreme Court
How do Supreme Court justices get nominated? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2726, Limits on the Power of the Supreme Court
Are there limits on the power of the Supreme Court? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2725, Fundamental Principles and Modernism
Today we look at the fundamental principles and modernism approaches to constitutional interpretation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2724, Strict Construction and Original Intent
Today we examine the strict construction and original intent methods of constitutional interpretation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2723, Written Opinions of the Supreme Court
Today we learn about the function of written opinions of the Supreme Court.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2722, Debate Over Interpretation
Scalia and Breyer's views on how the Constitution should be interpreted.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2721, Writs of Certiorari
What is a writ of certiorari? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2720, Appellate Jurisdiction
Do you know the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2719, Original and Appellate Jurisdiction
Learn about the appellate and original jurisdiction on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2718, Federal Courts
Today we present a one-minute overview the powers of federal courts under Article III of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2717, The Public as Watchdogs
The public can serve as watchdogs of administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2716, Courts and Federalism Check Administrative Agencies
The courts and our federal system check the power of administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2715, Congressional Oversight of Administrative Agencies
The president has appointment powers, but Congress has the power to oversee administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2714, Checks on the Powers of Administrative Agencies
Today we learn about checks on the power of administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2713, Patronage vs. Civil Service
In general, public employees can't be fired for refusing to support the political party in power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2712, Political Appointees
Political appointees are a powerful resource for incoming presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2711, Civil Service Reform
The civil service system has been reformed several times.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2710, Creation of the Civil Service
How was the civil service created? The answer might surprise you.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2709, Bureaucracy
More on the bureaucracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2708, Expanding and Contracting Bureaucracy
Sometimes, the bureaucracy shrinks. Learn about the expanding and shrinking of federal agencies on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2707, The Growth of Bureaucracy
What has caused the federal bureaucracy to grow over time? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2706, Limits on the Power of Administrative Agencies
Administrative agencies are powerful, but their power is limited. Find out how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2705, Powerful Administrative Agencies
Administrative agencies are powerful. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2704, Independent Agencies
Independent Agencies created by Congress have quasi-legislative and judicial powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2703, Executive Office of the President
What is the Executive Office of the President? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2702, Executive Departments
Today we begin our exploration of the national bureaucracy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2701, Administrative Agencies
Today we begin our series on the administrative agencies of the federal government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2700, The President and America's Reputation
Why is the president the preeminent figure in domestic and international politics? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2699, Congress and the Presidency
What happens if there is a tie in the Electoral College? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2698, The Electoral College
Just in time for election day! How the Electoral College works.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2697, Differences Between Parliament and Congress
There are critical differences between Parliament and Congress. Learn what these are on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2696, Parliament and the Prime Minister
How do Parliament and the prime minister differ from the American system? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2695, Congress and the Supreme Court Limit the President
Congress, the Supreme Court, and public opinion limit the power of the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2694, Congress Can Limit a President's Power
Congress has a number of ways to limit the power of presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2693, Checks and Balances on the President's Power
The president's power is limited. Learn how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2692, Executive Orders
Why have executive orders increased in recent years? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2691, Recommending Legislation to Congress
Find out about the president's role in lawmaking on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2690, Wanted: A Strong President
Americans want their presidents to be strong, but tend to distrust activist presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2689, The Balance of Power
Can Congress and the Supreme Court reign in the power of the president? You bet.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2688, Congress and the Court reign in the president
Can Congress and the Supreme Court reign in the power of the president? You bet.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2687, Presidential Power in Emergency and Crisis
What does the Constitution say about presidential powers during emergencies or crisis? The answer may surprise you.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2686, Wars, Emergencies, and FDR
With the support of Congress, FDR responded to the multiple crises that occurred during his administration.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2685, Diplomat in Chief
How is the president America's diplomat in chief? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2684, The President and Treaties
The president can make treaties with the approval of two-thirds of the Senate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2683, The President As Commander in Chief
The president is commander in chief, but only Congress can declare war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2682, The President and Foreign Affairs
The president's power is at its greatest when it comes to foreign affairs.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2681, The President As Leader in Foreign Policy
The president has a number of important powers, but the president's powers are limited in important ways.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2680, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Find out why Franklin D. Roosevelt was arguably the most influential president of the 20th century.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2679, Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Wilson
Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Wilson each contributed to the growth of presidential power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2678, Jefferson and the Use of Presidential Power
Thomas Jefferson sought to be a model of republican simplicity.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2677, The Rise of Presidential Power
Some scholars trace the rise of the powerful modern presidency to Andrew Jackson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2676, A Strong President, But Not Too Strong
The Framers of the Constitution wanted the president to be strong, but not too strong.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2675, Above Partisan Politics
The Framers of the Constitution expected presidents to be above partisan bickering. It didn't work out that way.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2674, A President's Inherent Powers
Today: some controversial inherent powers of presidents.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2673, Presidential Power and the Courts
Today we learn about Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson's opinion in Youngstown Sheet vs. Sawyer.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2672, Presidential powers
Learn about some of the president's powers on today's 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2671, Examples of impeachment
Seventeen national officers have been impeached since 1792.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2670, Impeachment
Any member of the House can initiate impeachment proceedings, but two-thirds of the Senate is required for removal from office.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2669, Investigations and the balance of power
Congress uses its powers of investigation most frequently when the majority are of a different party than the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2668, The power to investigate
Congress has conducted hundreds of investigations since 1792.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2667, The authority of Congress to conduct investigations
Even though it's not mentioned in the Constitution, Congress has the authority to carry out investigations.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2666, Lobbying
Is lobbying dangerous for democracy? Learn about lobbying on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2665, The role of constituents
Constituents play a vital role in American government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2664, The executive branch as a source for laws
The president has the constitutional authority to recommend measures for congressional consideration.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2663, Ideas for legislation
There is no shortage of sources of ideas for legislation available to members of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2662, Congress and individual rights
Today we learn about the role of Congress in protecting individual rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2661, Lawmaking, Part 5: Persistence and compromise
Lawmaking requires compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2660, Lawmaking, Part 4: Conference committees and the veto
What happens when the House and Senate versions differ? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2659, Lawmaking, Part 3: The committee vote
What happens when a bill is passed by one chamber of Congress? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2658, Lawmaking, Part 2: Mark-up sessions
How do congressional committees work? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2657, Lawmaking, Part 1: Introducing a bill
Today we begin a brief series on how laws are made.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2656, Bills and resolutions
Today on the podcast: simple, joint, and concurrent resolutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2655, President pro tempore
Today we learn about the president pro tempore of the Senate and the majority whip of the House.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2654, Senate leadership
Today we learn about the vice president's role in the Senate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2653, Office of Speaker in England and America
Today we contrast the speaker of the House of Commons with that of the House of Representatives.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2652, Leadership in the House vs. the Senate
The House and Senate have a different leadership structure.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2651, A powerful Speaker of the House
The Speaker of the House is a powerful position.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2650, Influence of political parties on Congress
Political parties have sway in Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2649, Senate rules
The Senate has rules, too. Learn about some of these on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2648, Rules for House committees
Rules, rules, rules. Your mom has them, your school has them, even the House of Representatives has them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2647, The purpose of congressional committees
The careful, deliberative work of Congress often occurs during committee meetings.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2646, Congressional committees
Today we start our series on how Congress performs its functions in the American constitutional system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2645, Casework and legislation
On today's podcast, we learn how members of Congress serve the public.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2644, Communication with constituents
According to C-SPAN, there are 570 official congressional Twitter accounts. Do you follow your members of Congress?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2643, Delegate vs. trustee theory of representation
Today on the podcast: the delegate vs. trustee theory of representation
60-Second Civics: Episode 2642, The size of Congress
How large is the U.S. Congress compared to other national legislatures? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2641, Congress composed of 535 legislators
Today we learn about the size of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2640, Gerrymandering
Today, it's everyone's least favorite political practice: gerrymandering.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2639, One person, one vote
Today we learn about the one person, one vote rule.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2638, Legislative districts
What can you do if you don't like the way your congressional district is drawn? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2637, Congress represents the people and the states.
Both the people and the states have a voice in Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2636, Inherent powers
The power to conduct investigations and compel testimony goes back to Parliament and the colonial legislatures.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2635, Enforcement powers
The enforcement powers of Congress have been used to enact sweeping civil rights, voting rights, and voting laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2634, Necessary and proper
The necessary and proper clause was controversial from the start.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2633, Congress and administrative agencies
Congress can both create and oversee administrative agencies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2632, Implied powers of Congress
Today on 60-Second Civics, McCulloch v. Maryland and the implied powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2631, More enumerated powers of Congress
Today on the podcast, more enumerated powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2630, Enumerated powers of Congress
Today we learn about enumerated powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2629, How the Bill of Rights limits Congress
On today's episode, learn two ways that the Bill of Rights limits Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2628, How the Framers limited the power of Congress
The Framers of the Constitution mistrusted concentrations of power in government, so they sought to limit the power of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2627, Federalism in the United States
Congress is not only legislature in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2626, Lengths of terms of parliamentarians and members of Congress
Elections to the UK Parliament can occur at irregular intervals, but members of Congress are elected at regular intervals.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2625, Congress is one of three coequal branches
Congress is one of three coequal branches of the U.S. government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2624, Parliamentary government prohibited
The Constitution forbids establishment of a parliamentary system for the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2623, Congress vs. Parliament
Today we compare Congress with Parliament.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2622, The House of Commons
Today we learn about the House of Commons.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2621, The House of Lords
Today we learn about the House of Lords.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2620, Twenty-sixth Amendment
The Twenty-sixth Amendment lowered the voting age to 18.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2619, Removing obstacles to Native American voting
Native Americans were often deprived of their right to vote until Congress took action.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2618, Native American voters
In several states, Native Americans are viewed as an increasingly important voting bloc.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2617, Native American citizenship
Throughout most of the first two hundred years of the United States, Native Americans were denied American citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2616, Native American and citizenship
The Framers considered Native Americans to be members of their tribes, not citizens of the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2615, The Nineteenth Amendment
The Nineteenth Amendment was finally adopted in 1920.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2614, The slow march to woman suffrage
Women in the United States gained the right to vote in small increments. Plenty of excuses were offered for not recognizing women's right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2613, Suffrage for women in the states
Even though the federal government was slow to recognize the right of women to vote, states like Wyoming took matters into their own hands.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2612, The long road to equal voting rights for women
The road to winning the right to vote for women was long, and suffragists faced many setbacks.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2611, Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
Today we learn about the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2610, Literacy tests
Literacy tests were designed to disenfranchise African American voters. They did not disappear entirely until 1970.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2609, Poll taxes
Poll taxes were meant to keep the poor and minorities from voting. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment ended poll taxes in 1964.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2608, Civil Rights Act of 1868
Until discriminatory laws and Supreme Court rulings took effect, millions of African Americans were added to the voting rolls, and some were elected to public office.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2607, Fifteenth Amendment
In theory, the Fifteenth Amendment granted the right to vote to African American men. But discriminatory laws kept African Americans from exercising that right.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2606, Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
Mexican American men faced discrimination and violence in Texas when they tried to exercise their right to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2605, Dorr Rebellion
What was the Dorr Rebellion? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2604, Voting reform
Voting reform took place slowly after 1790.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2603, Property requirements
Suffrage in the original thirteen states expanded greatly after 1790.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2602, Voting and property
Thomas Paine, with his characteristically sharp wit, pointing out some problems with the property requirement for voting.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2601, Enfranchisement and disenfranchisement
Who was allowed to vote in after the Revolution? It depended on where you lived.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2600, Voting in the colonies
What legacy of Greek and Roman democracy did the colonists inherit? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2599, Expansion of suffrage
How did the right to vote gradually expand in the United States? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2598, Controversy over equal protection
Today we examine some of the controversies surrounding equal protection.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2597, Rational basis
What is rational basis? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2596, Intermediate scrutiny
Today we discuss intermediate scrutiny and how it applies to gender-based distinctions in the law.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2595, Strict scrutiny
Strict scrutiny is the highest level of analysis used by the Supreme Court to determine whether equal protection has been violated.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2594, Equal protection today
How does the Supreme Court decide whether a law violates equal protection?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2593, Kenneth and Mamie Clark
Kenneth and Mamie Clark's research showed the severe and damaging psychological effects of segregation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2592, Brown vs. Board of Education
In 1953 the Supreme Court found that "the doctrine of separate but equal has no place."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2591, The NAACP
How did the NAACP help to end segregation in education? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2590, Jim Crow laws
What were Jim Crow laws? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2589, Equal protection and equal opportunity
What does equal protection of the laws mean? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2588, Arbitrary barriers to rights
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment protects you from arbitrary infringement of your rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2587, The equal protection clause
Equal protection of the laws is rooted in the Declaration's statement that "all Men are created equal."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2586, Incorporation of criminal procedures
Why has the Supreme Court been reluctant to incorporate criminal procedural guarantees? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2585, Selective incorporation
What is selective incorporation? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2584, Gitlow vs. New York
Today we explore Gitlow vs. New York, the 1925 freedom of expression case.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2583, Interpreting due process
In the twentieth century, the Court began the process of incorporating the Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2582, Fundamental rights recognized by the courts
The states must show they have a compelling interest in order to regulate certain fundamental rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2581, The courts and fundamental rights
How do the courts deal with issues of fundamental rights? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2580, Substantive due process
Today on the podcast we learn about substantive due process.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2579, Comparing the adversarial and inquisitorial systems
Which is better, the adversarial or inquisitorial system of justice? Learn the arguments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2578, The fight theory of justice
What is the fight theory of justice? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2577, Beyond a reasonable doubt
In the American and English systems of justice, criminal defendants do not have to prove their innocence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2576, Adversarial vs. inquisitorial systems of justice
Today we examine the adversarial and inquisitorial systems of justice.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2575, Examples of due process
What does due process of law mean? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2574, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments and due process
Today we delve into due process and procedural due process.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2573, Due process of law
Due process of law is both an ancient and evolving concept.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2572, Discriminatory laws
Discriminatory laws aimed at reducing the political power of African Americans sowed the seeds of the civil rights movement.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2571, The Fifteenth Amendment
The Civil War amendments were not enough to protect the rights of African Americans.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2570, Black Codes
Learn about the Black Codes on today's podcast and how the country responded.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2569, How the country changed after the Civil War
The Civil War and the Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery. The war resolved many other issues as well.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2568, The Emancipation Proclamation and presidential power
Not everyone was happy with the Emancipation Proclamation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2567, The Emancipation Proclamation
Abraham Lincoln used emancipation as a weapon of war.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2566, Lincoln asserts his authority
Lincoln ignored the Supreme Court's ruling on habeas corpus, and Congress backed him up with legislation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2565, Taney vs. Lincoln
The chief justice of the Supreme Court and President Lincoln squared off over Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2564, Too strong or too weak?
Abraham Lincoln had to simultaneously exercise and limit his powers during the Civil War to preserve the Union and the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2563, Congress approves Lincoln's actions
Lincoln acted to aggressively counter secession; Congress supported him.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2562, Unprecedented presidential powers
President Lincoln exercised unprecedented presidential powers during wartime.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2561, Slavery and the Confederate constitution
The Confederates wrote a constitution based on the U.S. Constitution, but protected slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2560, The philosophy behind the Confederacy
The Confederates believed they were fighting a second American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2559, Lincoln and the start of the Civil War
The Civil War begins, and Lincoln responds quickly.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2558, Abraham Lincoln and secession
Abraham Lincoln's election prompted eleven Southern states to secede.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2557, Taney and the Dred Scott decision
Chief Justice Taney hoped his ruling in Dred Scott would resolve the slavery issue peacefully. It did the opposite.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2556, The reasoning behind the Dred Scott decision
In the infamous Supreme Court decision of Dred Scott v. Sandford, the Court held that African Americans were not citizens.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2555, The Dred Scott decision
Dred Scott sued for his freedom in a Supreme Court case that inflamed opinions on both sides of the slavery debate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2554, Free soil and fugitive slaves
California was admitted to the Union as a state that banned slavery, but the South got a stronger Fugitive Slave Act in return.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2553, The aftermath of the Mexican-American War
How did California's statehood affect slavery in the United States? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2552, Admitting slave and free states
The Missouri Compromise kept the balance between the free and slave states for sixty years.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2551, The divisive issue of slavery
Abolitionists asserted that the Framers of the Constitution were ashamed of slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2550, Slavery in the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution sought to avoid the issue of slavery during the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2549, What's wrong with the party system?
What's wrong with the political party system today?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2548, Purposes of political parties
Political parties can give people a sense of organized participation in government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2547, Purposes of political parties today
What is the purpose of political parties today? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2546, Political parties as additional checks and balances
Martin Van Buren thought that political parties provided an additional set of checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2545, Advantages of political parties
Martin Van Buren identified several advantages of political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2544, Martin Van Buren on political parties
Martin Van Buren and Thomas Jefferson had differing views about the role of political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2543, The Twelfth Amendment
The Twelfth Amendment gave political parties an ongoing role in American politics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2542, The Twelfth Amendment
The Constitution originally gave the vice presidency to the second-place finisher in a presidential election.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2541, The election of 1800
Why was it called the "revolution of 1800?" Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2540, The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts gave the president sweeping powers to act against people he considered enemies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2539, Divisive laws
The Alien and Sedition Acts outraged Republicans like James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2538, The Napoleonic Wars divide the nation
Hamilton supported Britain; Jefferson supported France. Washington declared American neutrality. Find out on today's episode how the Napoleonic Wars divided the nation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2537, Differences over economics
Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton were at odds over the interpretation of the necessary and proper clause.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2536, Concerns over an energetic national government
Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed about the power of the national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2535, The first American political parties
Learn today about the first American political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2534, Political parties: good or bad?
Edmund Burke thought political parties were useful, but many Americans thought of parties as factions: divisive forces in the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2533, Factions in the American colonies
There were lots of factions in the American colonies. Today we learn about some of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2532, The debate over factions
James Madison thought the Constitution would limit the effects of factions; Alexander Hamilton thought factions were an evil to be eliminated from society.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2531, Arguments against judicial review
Not everyone agreed with the concept of judicial review. This episodes examines some of their arguments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2530, Judicial review
Today we define what judicial review means.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2529, Marbury v. Madison
Today: the seminal Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2528, Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 defined the federal judiciary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2527, Caution over changing the Constitution
The Framers were cautious about changing the body of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2526, Arguments for a bill of rights
Jefferson, Washington, and Madison made convincing arguments for a bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2525, Arguments for a bill of rights
There were many persuasive arguments for a bill of rights, but adoption of the U.S. Bill of Rights would have to wait until after ratification.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2524, Prohibition and its repeal
Prohibition was a short-lived experiment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2523, More amendments
Did you know that a Supreme Court decision once barred Congress from levying an income tax? It was overturned by the sixteenth amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2522, Fundamental changes
The Civil War Amendments and amendments that increased direct participation by citizens fundamentally changed the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2521, The Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights was proposed with 12 amendments; only 10 survived to become the Bill of Rights. One of the 12 became the Twenty-seventh Amendment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2520, Twenty-seven amendments
More than 11,000 amendments to the Constitution have been formally proposed, but only 27 have been adopted.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2519, How to amend the Constitution
Amendments to the Constitution must be ratified either by state legislatures or special state conventions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2518, Amending the Constitution
The Framers knew from the beginning that the Constitution would have to be amended.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2517, A raucous ratification
Politics was far from genteel in the colonial era.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2516, The Constitution is ratified!
Learn about the rough road to ratification of the Constitution on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2515, The road to ratification
The Federalists struck a deal with the Anti-Federalists that saved the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2514, Protections of rights under the Constitution
The Federalists fought hard to defend the Constitution against Anti-Federalist criticisms.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2513, Is the Constitution too complicated?
Is the government created by the Constitution too complicated to get anything done? Madison argued that it was just complicated enough.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2512, The best way to promote republicanism
The Federalists made many arguments to support their position.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2511, The Constitution would not rely on civic virtue
If civic virtue of citizens does not guarantee rights, what will? The Federalists thought they had the answer.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2510, Civic virtue cannot be relied upon
Is civic virtue enough to allow a republic to survive? The Federalists said it wasn't.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2509, Survival in a large republic
How could democracy survive in a large, diverse nation? James Madison thought he knew the answer.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2508, Federalist 10
In Federalist 10, James Madison turned classical republican arguments on their heads.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2507, Republican government in a large and diverse nation
Could America do what no large republic had done in history? Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2140, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 4: Founders who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention
Jefferson, Adams, Paine, Henry, and Hancock did not attend the Philadelphia Convention, but for different reasons.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2506, Presenting Federalist arguments
The Federalists argued that the Constitution represented a "new science of politics."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2505, The Federalist
The Federalist is considered by historians to be the most important work written to defend the new Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2504, Federalist strategy
Federalist strategy was to hold state ratifying conventions as soon as possible so that Anti-Federalists would not have enough time to organize.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2503, Arguments for a bill of rights
State governments had bills of rights, so why didn't the federal government?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2502, Vague and general powers are dangerous
The Anti-Federalists believed that the lack of a bill of rights in the Constitution would results in basic rights of the people being stripped away.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2501, The Constitution's lack of a bill of rights
The proposed Constitution lacked a bill of rights
60-Second Civics: Episode 2500, Anti-Federalist criticisms of checks and balances
It's our 2,500th episode! Today we learn about some powerful Anti-Federalist critiques of the system of checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2499, Anti-Federalist arguments about the presidency and courts
The Anti-Federalists argued that both the president and the federal courts would have too much power under the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2498, Anti-Federalist arguments about the power of Congress
The Anti-Federalists were concerned that the Constitution gave too much power to Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2497, Contributions of the Anti-Federalists
Overall, George Washington felt that the Anti-Federalists had contributed to the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2496, Robert Yates
Robert Yates wrote a series of Anti-Federalist essays explaining why the Constitution would not be the best form of government for the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2495, Anti-Federalist ideas
What did the Anti-Federalists believe? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2494, Benjamin Franklin on the Constitution
Benjamin Franklin on the Constitution and the struggle for ratification in Massachusetts, on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2493, A nationwide debate
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists engaged in a nationwide debate about ratification of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2492, Anti-Federalists
Today we are introduced to the Anti-Federalists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2491, Debate begins
Debate of the Constitution begins in the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2490, The ratification process begins
The ratification process was consistent with social contract theory and the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2489, We the People
The plan for ratification of the Constitution was consistent with the idea of "We the People...do establish and ordain this Constitution."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2488, Ratification
James Madison knew that all the states were unlikely to approve the new Constitution, but he thought of an alternative.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2487, Unresolved controversies at the Philadelphia Convention
Today we learn about unresolved controversies at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2486, Controversy over voting rights
Voting rights sparked controversy at the Philadelphia Convention
60-Second Civics: Episode 2485, National citizenship
The Constitution did not define national citizenship.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2484, A compromise over slavery
The fugitive slave clause shows that the Framers intended slavery to be a state institution, and not a permanent one.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2483, The fugitive slave clause
The fugitive slave clause shows that the Framers intended slavery to be a state institution, and not a permanent one.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2482, Slavery and representation
The debate over the Three-fifths Compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2481, Why the word "slavery" does not appear in the Constitution
The Framers were ashamed of slavery, and did not include the word in the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2480, Article IV
Article IV of the Constitution contains several important protections.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2479, The Constitution limits state power
The Constitution forbids state governments to pass certain laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2478, Political independence
Is the political independence of members of Congress important? The Framers thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2477, Limitations on the power of the national government
Today learn about habeas corpus, ex post facto laws, bills of attainder, and more.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2476, Powers of the national government over the states, Part 2
On today's podcast we explore more powers of the national government over the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2475, Powers of the national government over the states, Part 2
On today's podcast we explore more powers of the national government over the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2474, Concerns about state power
The Framers of the Constitution had to perform a delicate balancing act.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2473, Impeachment and judicial review
Impeachment and judicial review are two vital checks on the power of government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2472, The power of war
One of the most important powers in the Constitution, the power to wage and declare war, is shared by the president and Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2471, The power to appoint executive officials and make treaties
Article II, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution lists important powers shared by Congress and the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2470, Separated and shared powers
The Framers of the Constitution ensured that the branches of government had separated and shared powers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2469, How judges should be selected
Although the Framers agreed that judges should be independent, how judges should be selected was more controversial.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2468, The independence of the judicial branch
The Framers of the Constitution took great care to ensure that the judicial branch remained independent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2467, Agreement over the national judiciary
The national judiciary was one area where the Framers of the Constitution substantially agreed.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2466, The national judiciary
Today we learn about the creation of the national judiciary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2465, Pros and cons of the Electoral College
Today we examine the pros and cons of the Electoral College.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2464, The Electoral College and the popular vote
A presidential candidate can win the popular vote, but still lose the Electoral College vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2463, The Electoral College
The Electoral College explained.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2462, The perils of presidential selection
The Framers of the Constitution did not approve direct election, but thought that indirect election was fraught with danger.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2461, How should we elect the president?
The Framers of the Constitution were not generally in favor of having the president elected directly by the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2460, What kind of presidency should we have?
The Framers of the Constitution originally proposed a 7-year term of office for the president.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2459, One chief executive
The Framers agreed that it would be better to have one single chief executive rather than multiple executives.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2458, Three questions about the executive branch
The Framers of the Constitution had to resolve three key issues about the nature of the executive branch.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2457, Alexander Hamilton on the executive branch
Alexander Hamilton described the dilemma of the Framers in creating the office of the president, but James Wilson came to Philadelphia with a plan.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2456, Fear of executive power
The Framers feared an executive branch that was too strong, but experience taught them that the executive should not be too weak.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2455, Compromises about the power of Congress
The compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey plans sheds some light on the current powers of Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2454, Congress designed to be a deliberative body
Congress was not actually designed to pass legislation quickly. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2453, Separated institutions sharing powers
The Framers created a system that historian Richard Neustadt called "a government of separated institutions sharing powers."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2452, An imbalance of power leads to tyranny
The American colonists believed that Parliament had been corrupted by the Crown.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2451, Adding new states
How did the Framers deal with the addition of new states to the Union? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2450, The Three-Fifths Compromise
The Three-Fifths Compromise meant that three-fifths of enslaved people would be counted for purposes of representation in Congress, although the word "slaves" was never mentioned.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2449, Controversy over slavery and representation
Delegates to the Philadelphia Convention argued about whether slaves were equal to free men for purposes of representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2448, How should representation be decided?
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention debated whether slaves should be counted for purposes of representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2447, Taxation and compromise
The Great Compromise settled the issue of representation, but controversy remained.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2446, The Great Compromise
The Great Compromise saved the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2445, Defeat of the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan failed, but it was clear that a compromise was needed.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2444, Hamilton's plan fails
Alexander Hamilton's plan for national government never gained any traction at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2443, Alexander Hamilton's New York Plan
Alexander Hamilton's plan for a national government featured a strong executive and weak states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2442, The executive and judicial branches under the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan featured an odd executive branch composed of several people appointed by Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2441, Powers of Congress under the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan proposed to increase the powers of Congress
60-Second Civics: Episode 2440, Disagreement over representation in the Senate
Debate raged at the Philadelphia Convention over proportional versus equal representation in the Senate.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2439, A government for states, not individuals
Should the federal government represent states or individuals?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2438, Proportional vs. equal representation
The controversial idea of the Virginia Plan was that representation in the House and Senate should be based on population.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2437, The Pinckney Plan
Today we learn about a little-known plan for government that was only rediscovered in the twentieth century.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2436, Congressional power under the Virginia Plan
Congress would be much more powerful under the Virginia Plan than under the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2435, Federalism under the Virginia Plan
James Madison's Virginia Plan had a big influence over how we are governed today.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2434, The Virginia Plan
James Madison's Virginia Plan proposed a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2433, Madison does his homework
James Madison we extremely well-prepared for the Philadelphia Convention. He isn't called the "Father of the Constitution" for nothing.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2432, The benefits of the Philadelphia Convention's rules
The rules of the Philadelphia Convention had a purpose: to promote civil discourse.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2431, Secrecy at the Philadelphia Convention
If it weren't for James Madison, we might not know the details of what happened at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2430, Rules for the Philadelphia Convention
There were many rules governing the Philadelphia Convention; most were for the sake of promoting civil discourse.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2429, Who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention?
Jefferson, Adams, and Patrick Henry did not attend the Philadelphia Convention, but for different reasons.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2428, Roger Sherman at the Philadelphia Convention
Roger Sherman attended nearly every session of the Philadelphia Convention and was instrumental in creating the Connecticut Compromise.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2427, Edmund Randolph at the Philadelphia Convention
Edmund Randolph refused to sign the Constitution, but later campaigned for its ratification.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2426, Gouverneur Morris at the Philadelphia Convention
Gouverneur Morris wrote much of the actual text of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2425, James Wilson at the Philadelphia Convention
James Wilson was born in Scotland. He was active in the Revolution, and led the ratification effort in Pennsylvania.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2424, Alexander Hamilton at the Philadelphia Convention
Alexander Hamilton was outvoted by his fellow New Yorkers, but he campaigned hard for the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2423, Benjamin Franklin at the Philadelphia Convention
Benjamin Franklin was 81 and in poor health at the Philadelphia Convention, but rarely missed a meeting.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2422, James Madison at the Philadelphia Convention
Today we learn about James Madison, the brilliant and versatile "father of the Constitution."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2421, George Washington at the Philadelphia Convention
George Washington was so respected that he was unanimously elected president of the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2420, Delegates to the Philadelphia Convention
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention varied widely in age in ability.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2419, State participation in the Philadelphia Convention
In 1787 the Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2418, Shays' Rebellion, Part 3
What were the long-term effects of Shays' Rebellion? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2417, Shays' Rebellion, Part 2
Daniel Shays and his "Regulators" attempt to seize a state armory to fuel their rebellion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2416, Shays' Rebellion, Part 1
Angry farmers and a showdown with the government: Sound familiar? Except this rebellion happened in 1786.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2415, Debt and instability after the American Revolution
An economic downturn in the mid-1780s led to a crisis in the early American republic.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2414, Economic consequences of the American Revolution
The Revolutionary War had both good and bad consequences for the economy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2413, Low turnout at the Annapolis Convention
The Annapolis Convention was disappointing, but it did result in a call to amend the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2412, Fixing the Articles of Confederation
Problems with the Articles of Confederation led to calls for reform.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2411, Majority tyranny under state governments
The threat of majority tyranny concerned Americans
60-Second Civics: Episode 2410, Localists vs. cosmopolitans
Learn about the tensions between localists and cosmopolitans after the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2409, Treatment of loyalists after the American Revolution
Some state governments refused to protect loyalists after the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2408, A weak national government created problems
A weak Congress created many problems in the early United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2407, Agreements with other nations under the Articles of Confederation
International trade was particularly difficult under the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2406, Limited government power under the Articles
Limiting the power of the national government too much turned out to be a disaster.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2405, Admitting states to the Union
Today we learn how new states were admitted to the Union under the Northwest Ordinance.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2404, The Northwest Ordinance
Arguably the most significant Articles of Confederation was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2403, Achievements under the Articles of Confederation
Today we learn about some of the achievements of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2402, Balancing power in the Articles of Confederation
Learn how the Articles of Confederation resolved three key controversies on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2401, Three issues
Three issues divided groups of states against each other during debates over the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2400, Powers of the Confederation Congress
Today we learned about the powers of the Confederation Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2399, A firm league of friendship
Today we learn how the Articles of Confederation created a "firm league of friendship" among the states rather than a strong central government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2398, Government should be close to the people
The Continental Congress realized that a strong central government was necessary, but they were wary of its power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2397, Fear of a strong national government
Writers of the Article of Confederation were wary of a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2396, A plan for confederation
Taxes, territory, and representation were contentious issues during debates over the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2395, The need for political union
Today, an introduction to the Articles of Confederation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2394, Protections in state constitutions
State constitutions after independence protected a variety of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2393, State declarations of rights
Find out on today's podcast some of the guarantees provided in state declarations of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2392, The influence of the Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights was an influential document. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2391, Rights in the Virginia Declaration of Rights
On today's podcast we take a look at the rights in the Virginia Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2390, The Virginia Declaration of Rights
The Virginia Declaration of Rights served as a model for the U.S. Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2389, Rights in the Pennsylvania constitution
Today we examine the preamble to the Pennsylvania constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2388, Rights in state constitutions
Most state constitutions began by listing the rights of the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2387, Representation of different economic classes
The representation of different economic classes in the Massachusetts constitution of 1780 contributed to political stability.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2386, A strong executive
The Massachusetts constitution of 1780 featured a strong executive, unlike most state constitutions of the era.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2385, Massachusetts constitution of 1780
The Massachusetts constitution of 1780 had a structure that closely resembled that of the U.S. Constitution, but preceded it by seven years.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2384, Limits on legislative power
State legislatures were powerful during and after the American Revolution, but there were checks on their power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2383, Examples of legislative supremacy
Legislatures severely limited the power of governors after the American Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2382, Limiting the power of judges
The framers of state constitutions were wary of the power of judges.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2381, Reasons for legislative supremacy
Today we learn the reasons for the faith the framers of state constitutions had in legislative supremacy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2380, Legislative supremacy
Most state constitutions immediately following independence provided for legislative supremacy and majority rule.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2379, Social contract and voting
State constitutions guaranteed the right to popular sovereignty, but not everyone got to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2378, Basic principles of state constitutions
All state constitutions after independence contained several basic principles.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2377, Free and independent states
The Declaration of Independence proclaimed the colonies to be "Free and Independent States."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2376, The right to revolution
The Declaration of Independence made a radical claim: that the people have a right to revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2375, Charges against the king
The Declaration of Independence charged King George III of depriving the colonists of the rights he was supposed to protect.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2374, Human equality and government by consent
Human equality and government by consent are two bedrock principles of the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2373, The Declaration of Independence
After a long train of abuses by King George III, the colonists declare independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2372, The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was a radical document. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2371, The Revolution begins
After Lexington and Concord, Britain declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2370, Concord Hymn
Today, the poem Concord Hymn by Ralph Waldo Emerson.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2369, Lexington and Concord
The "shot heard 'round the world" marked the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2368, The First Continental Congress
The Intolerable Acts were a step too far for the colonies. Delegates met in the First Continental Congress to coordinate resistance.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2367, The Intolerable Acts
After the Tea Act, some colonists dressed like Mohawk indians and dumped tea into Boston Harbor. The Punitive Acts ensued, further fanning the flames of revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2366, John Adams and the Boston Massacre
Before he was president, John Adams defended the soldiers accused of the Boston Massacre. He called it "one of the most gallant...actions of my whole life."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2365, The Boston Massacre
On the night of March 5, 1770, a terrible event occurred that would be called "bloody butchery" by Samuel Adams. We know it today as the Boston Massacre.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2364, Daughters of Liberty
More British taxation on the colonists leads to the formation of the Daughters of Liberty.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2363, Sons of Liberty
Who were the Sons of Liberty? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2362, Opposition to British taxation
On today's podcast, learn about the three forms of opposition to British taxation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2361, No taxation without representation
Many Americans resisted new British taxes after the Seven Years' War. "No taxation without representation" became their rallying cry.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2360, Quartering Act of 1765
The Quartering Act of 1765 was one in a series of laws that angered American colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2359, The Stamp Act
The Stamp Act was Parliament's first attempt to impose a direct, internal tax on the American colonies. It was reviled by the colonists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2358, The Proclamation Act of 1763
The British Parliament once forbade settlement west of the Appalachians. It didn't have the welfare of Native Americans in mind, however.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2357, Salutary neglect
The laissez-faire attitude of the British toward the colonies resulted in Americans becoming used to their freedoms.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2356, Parliament takes action to control the colonies
The British Parliament took several steps to control the American colonies in the late 18th century.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2355, Increasing control of the colonies
War debt compelled the British to increase control over the colonies. A bad move, as it turned out.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2354, American legislators
There were several key differences between American legislators and member so Parliament.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2353, The importance of property in colonial America
In many American colonies, you had to own at least 50 acres of land to vote.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2352, Colonial governors and courts
Governors and courts had important roles in the American colonies
60-Second Civics: Episode 2351, Separation of powers in the colonies
The structure of colonial governments resembled those we have in states today.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2350, Representative government in America
Representative government was one of the most important developments in the American colonies.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2349, Basic principles of colonial governments
Colonists sought to protect their basic rights in their colonial constitutions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2348, Colonial innovations in government
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were an important step in American constitutionalism. Learn why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2347, Colonial legislatures
Today we learn about colonial legislatures and checks on their authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2346, Structure of colonial governments
Learn about the structure of American colonial governments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2345, Inequality in the colonies
Indentured servants, Native Americans, and slaves did not have equal rights in colonial America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2344, Not all Americans enjoyed basic rights
Although guarantees of basic rights appeared in many American colonies, not all Americans benefited equally.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2343, The Massachusetts Body of Liberties of 1641
The Massachusetts Body of Liberties was America's first bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2342, A royal charter
The royal charter for Jamestown guaranteed the settlers the rights of Englishmen.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2341, The Southern Colonies
The Southern Colonies were mostly rural. They produced agricultural products and exploited the labor of slaves.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2340, The New England Colonies
The New England Colonies featured the first confederation among European settlers.
60-Second Civics: Episode 23389, Success in America
The chance to improve one's lot in life is fundamental to the American experience.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2339, The Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies were diverse, tolerant, and cosmopolitan.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2338, Success in America
The chance to improve one's lot in life is fundamental to the American experience.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2337, Work in colonial America
In colonial America you had to work hard to survive.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2336, The land of opportunity
How America became the land of opportunity
60-Second Civics: Episode 2335, The labor shortage in colonial America
In colonial America land was cheap, but labor was scarce.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2334, Corporate and proprietary charters
The English Crown tried many methods to lure colonists to America, but eventually the colonists were considered to be too independent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2333, The Mayflower Compact
The Mayflower was a long way off course. But what they agreed to do would make history.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2332, Royal proprietorships and joint-stock companies
Eleven of the 13 colonies were royal proprietorships.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2331, British settlers needed
Britain used royal proprietorships and joint-stock companies to entice settlers to settle America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2330, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 21:The English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights expressed two important principles that influenced American constitutionalism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2329, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 20: Parliament's power grows
Parliament's power grew in the 17th century, and struggles for power led to the English Bill of Rights of 1689.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2328, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 19: Habeas Corpus Act of 1679
Today we learn about one of the most important limits on governmental power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2327, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 18: Petition of right of 1628
With the Restoration, the right to habeas corpus gained new authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2326, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 17: Struggles for power
In the 17th century, the Crown and Parliament squabbled over money, religion, and foreign policy.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2325, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 16: The British Constitution
The British constitution is not a single written document. Learn more on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2324, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 15: Common-law rights in America
American colonists in Britain cherished their common-law rights and devised ways to protect them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2323, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 14: Common-law rights
Learn about the evolution of common-law rights on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2322, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 13: The Magna Carta's bumpy ride
King John tried to subvert the Magna Carta as soon as his signed it.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2321, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 12: The Magna Carta and constitutional principles
Americans would find the seed of important constitutional principles in the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2320, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 11: More Magna Carta
The barons didn't believe they were making any drastic change in the power of the king when they forced King John to sign the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2319, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 10: The rule of law
What does the rule of law have to do with the Magna Carta? Find out on 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2318, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 9: The Magna Carta
The Magna Carta established three principles important for the development of constitutional government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2317, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 8: Precedent to the Magna Carta
Learn about the Charter of Liberties, a forerunner of the Magna Carta.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2316, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 7: Common-law rights
Learn about the English common-law system on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2315, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 6: Stare decisis
How did the system of stare decisis evolve in England? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2314, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 5: Parliament develops
Learn how Parliament evolved into a check on monarchical power on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2313, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 4: The Model Parliament
What was the Model Parliament? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2312, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 3: The origins of Parliament
How did the English Parliament begin? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2311, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 2: 1066 and all that
William the Conqueror changed the way England was governed.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2310, British origins of American constitutionalism, Part 1: The Anglo-Saxon era
Today we begin our series on the British origins of American constitutionalism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2309, History and rights, Part 17: New science of politics
What was the "new science of politics"? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2308, History and rights, Part 16: Enlightenment political philosophers
Today we learn about four influential political philosophers of the Enlightenment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2307, History and rights, Part 15: Science and reason
On today's podcast, we discuss the factors that led to the Age of Enlightenment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2306, History and rights, Part 14: Age of Enlightenment
On today's podcast, we discuss the factors that led to the Age of Enlightenment.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2305, History and rights, Part 13: Capitalism, natural rights, Protestantism, and Adam Smith.
Capitalism was justified by both natural rights philosophy and Protestant religious ideas.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2304, History and rights, Part 12: The rise of capitalism
The increase in over greater distances help break up feudalism in Europe.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2303, History and rights, Part 11: The Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia gave rise to the modern nation-state.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2302, History and rights, Part 10: Wars of the Reformation
The Reformation sparked bloody violence in Europe that would spawn the modern nation-state.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2301, History and rights, Part 9: The Reformation, individualism, and the Puritans
The Reformation posed a threat to most established institutions and authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2300, History and rights, Part 8: Greater freedom of conscience
The Reformation encouraged greater freedom of conscience and decentralzed religious authority.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2299, History and rights, Part 7: The Protestant Reformation
The Reformation was a powerful stimulus to modern individualism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2298, History and rights, Part 6: The Renaissance
A lot of things changed during the Renaissance. Find out what happened on 60-Second Civics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2297, History and rights, Part 5: Medieval European society
Imagine a society where you never leave the social class you were born in: this was medieval Europe.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2296, History and rights, Part 4: Classical republicanism in medieval Europe
Some medieval ideas about society and government came from classical republicanism.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2295, History and rights, Part 3: Feudalism
Europe in the Middle Ages was fragmented, people were isolated, and feudalism predominated.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2294, History and rights, Part 2: The influence of the Church
Christianity was a powerful force during the Middle Ages but political loyalties were still local.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2293, History and rights, Part 1: The Judeo-Christian religious tradition
Much of the Founders' commitment to liberty and individual rights sprang from the Judeo-Christian tradition.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2292, Natural rights philosophy, Part 10: Human equality
Slavery was introduced in Virginia in 1619. Nevertheless, the idea of human equality would be used as a weapon to attach slavery.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2291, Natural rights philosophy, Part 9: Limited government
According to John Locke, the people own government and the people can terminate it.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2290, Natural rights philosophy, Part 8: Popular sovereignty
Two important ideas from natural rights philosophy: popular sovereignty and government by consent.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2289, Natural rights philosophy, Part 7: Inalienable rights
During the crisis of the Revolution, Americans took a more personal view of their inalienable rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2288, Natural rights philosophy, Part 6: The Bible of the Revolution
Whose work was considered to be the Bible of the Revolution? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2287, Natural rights philosophy, Part 5: The right to revolution
The right to revolution became a key argument of the Declaration of Independence.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2286, Natural rights philosophy, Part 4: Life, Liberty, and Leviathan
In contrast to Thomas Hobbes, John Locke imagined that people form social contracts to preserve their rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2285, Natural rights philosophy, Part 3: Leviathan
It was a century of rapid change. Classical republicanism had lost its luster. Then came Hobbes and Locke.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2284, Natural rights philosophy, Part 2: Basic questions
What would life be like in a state of nature? That's what Hobbes and Locke asked themselves.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2283, Natural rights philosophy, Part 1: Divine right vs. self-government
The Declaration of Indepence put forth a radical proposition: that government had to have the consent of the people.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2282, Ideas about civic life, Part 9: The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence contains some of the most important ideas underlying our government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2281, Ideas about civic life, Part 8: Civic virtue and moral education
Classical republicans believed that civic virtue must be learned.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2280, Constitution Day 2015
What does the Preamble to the Constitution say? What is its significance? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2279, Ideas about civic life, Part 7: Cincinnatus
What do Cincinnatus and George Washington have in common? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2278, Ideas about civic life, Part 6: The office of citizen in classical republics
Classical republicans believed that virtuous citizens should have the courage to do what is right even under trying circumstances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2277, Ideas about civic life, Part 5: Disparities cause conflict
Today we learn why classical republicans believed that members of political communities must be fundamentally alike.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2276, Ideas about civic life, Part 4: Small, uniform communities
Classical republicans thought that good government was only possible in small communities.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2275, Ideas about civic life, Part 3: Three aspects of classical republicanism
What three aspects of classical republicanism most influenced the founding generation of Americans? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2274, Ideas about civic life, Part 2: Lessons from the Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was both a lesson and a warning to those who wrote the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2273, Ideas about civic life, Part 1: The mixed constitution of Rome
The Roman Republic had an influence on the American Founders. Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2272, Colonial America, Part 20: Direct vs. representative democracy
Every constitutional system faces the same problem: ensuring that those in power obey constitutional limits
60-Second Civics: Episode 2271, Colonial America, Part 19: The Constitution as a higher law
What makes a higher law different from laws passed by legislatures? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2270, Colonial America, Part 18: What is constitutional government?
The Founders learned the lesson of unrestrained government power and sought to create a government of limited power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2269, Colonial America, Part 17: Constitutions are controversial!
Constitutions are controversial! Find out why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2268, Colonial America, Part 16: What is a constitution?
Today we learn exactly what a constitution is.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2267, Colonial America, Part 15: Republican government
What exactly is representative government, anyway? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2266, Colonial America, Part 14: England as a mixed constitution
The idea of a mixed constitution was popularized by Polybius; Montesquieu would later cite England as an example of one.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2265, Colonial America, Part 13: Aristotle, Polybius, and the mixed constitution
What do Aristotle and Polybius have to do with the American Founders? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2264, Colonial America, Part 12: Democracy
Why did Aristotle think that democracy wasn't the best form of government?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2263, Colonial America, Part 11: Aristotle's forms of governments.
Aristotle defined "right" and "corrupt" forms of government. Learn what these are on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2262, Colonial America, Part 10: Aristotle and the branches of government
Aristotle observed that every country's government must perform three functions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2261, Colonial America, Part 9: Lessons learned by the Founders
The American Founders learned two important lessons about government. Listen to today's podcast to learn about them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2260, Colonial America, Part 8: Hamilton on the lessons of history
Alexander Hamilton was not a fan of using examples from history when designing modern governments.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2259, Colonial America, Part 7: John Locke and the Founders
Why was John Locke considered "America's philosopher"? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2258, Colonial America, Part 6: Lessons from Greek and Roman philosophy
Democracies did not have a history of success, but the Founders learned the lessons of history.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2257, Colonial America, Part 5: Self-government
Even by 1776, Americans had 150 years of experience in self-governance.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2256, Colonial America, Part 4: Well-read Founders
America's Founders were well-read, familiar with Aristotle, Cicero, and Blackstone.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2255, Colonial America, Part 3: A rural nation
The America of the 1700s was a largely rural nation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2254, Colonial America, Part 2: A diverse nation
America of the 1700s was a diverse place.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2253, Colonial America, Part 1: The American colonies
America was established as a large, diverse nation composed of people of varying backgrounds, religions, and languages.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2252, Introduction, Part 2: The American Founders
Today we learn about America's Founders and the ideas that influenced them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2251, Introduction, Part 1: An adventure in ideas
Americans are defined as people by our shared values, such as our belief in liberty, equality, and justice.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2250, Political parties, Part 17: The downside of political parties
Today we learn about some of the downsides of the political party system in the United States.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2249, Political parties, Part 16: Political parties as agents of stability
Despite James Madison's fears, political parties can be agents of stability.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2248, Political parties, Part 15: The role of political parties today
What are political parties good for, anyway? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2247, Political parties, Part 14: Political parties as a revolutionary idea
Are political parties good for the nation? Here are some arguments in favor of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2246, Political parties, Part 13: Martin Van Buren on political parties
Martin Van Buren believed that political parties could act as a kind of glue in the American political system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2245, Political parties, Part 12: Political parties as a permanent part of the American political system
At the time of his inauguration, Thomas Jefferson hoped that political parties would disappear.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2244, Political parties, Part 11: Tied presidential election
The Twelfth Amendment ended a problem with the Constitution and created an ongoing role for political parties in the American system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2243, Political parties, Part 10: The Election of 1800
Why was the election of 1800 revolutionary? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2242, Political parties, Part 9: Anatomy of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Today we examine the Alien and Sedition Acts in detail.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2241, Political parties, Part 8: The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts would shock us today. They arguably caused John Adams to lose reelection.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2240, Political parties, Part 7: Federalists and Republicans
The Federalists and Republicans became the first national political parties in the United States, but neither considered the other to be the "loyal opposition."
60-Second Civics: Episode 2239, Political parties, Part 6: France or England?
Jefferson's and Hamilton's supporters were at odds over which side to support during the Napoleonic Wars. This division, among others, led to America's first political parties.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2238, Political parties, Part 5: Hamilton and Jefferson and the necessary and proper clause
Hamilton and Jefferson had different interpretations of the necessary and proper clause.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2237, Political parties, Part 4: The first parties debate the power of government
Americans have been debating the power of the national government for quite a long time.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2236, Political parties, Part 3: Factionalism in colonial America
Americans were no strangers to factionalism, even in colonial America.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2235, Political parties, Part 2: The potential value of factions
Is there any value in having factions in a representative system?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2234, Political parties, Part 1: Madison, Hume, and Burke on factions
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton differed on whether factions and political parties were good for the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2233, Amendments and judicial review, Part 17: Justice John Gibson's arguments against judicial review
Justice John Gibson created some powerful arguments against judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2232, Amendments and judicial review, Part 16: Arguments against judicial review
Judicial review wasn't accepted by everyone. President Andrew Jackson even threatened not to enforce Supreme Court decisions he disagreed with.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2231, Amendments and judicial review, Part 15: The Judiciary Act of 1789
Article III of the Constitution only outlines the national judiciary; Congress had to fill in the details.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2230, Amendments and judicial review, Part 14: Marshall's arguments
What were John Marshall's arguments in favor of judicial review? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2229, Amendments and judicial review, Part 13: Judicial review
Who has the final say about the meaning of the Constitution? Find out on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2228, Amendments and judicial review, Part 12: Marbury v. Madison
Does the Supreme Court have the authority to declare laws unconstitutional? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2227, Amendments and judicial review, Part 11: James Madison's other proposals
James Madison had many ideas for improving the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2226, Amendments and judicial review, Part 10: Prominent supporters of a bill of rights
Jefferson, Washington, and Madison all supported a bill of rights. Ten of the amendments proposed by Madison were later adopted as the Bill of Rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2225, Amendments and judicial review, Part 9: Unsuccessful arguments for a bill of rights
George Mason and others argued that a bill of rights be added to the Constitution. They did not gain enough support for the idea during the Philadelphia Convention, but their idea would eventually triumph.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2224, Amendments and judicial review, Part 8: Prohibition
Americans thought better about Prohibition, repealing it in 1933.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2223, Amendments and judicial review, Part 7: The Constitution amended
On today's podcast, amendments to the Constitution affecting the president and Congress.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2222, Amendments and judicial review, Part 6: Fundamental changes
Today we learn about some important constitutional amendments that go to the core of our constitutional system.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2221, Amendments and judicial review, Part 5: The Bill of Rights
What is the Bill of Rights? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2220, Amendments and judicial review, Part 4: Madison and the Bill of Rights
Which Framer of the Constitution pushed the Bill of Rights through Congress? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2219, Amendments and judicial review, Part 3: How the Constitution has been amended
Most proposed amendments fail to be approved by Congress before being sent to the states. Learn about some of these on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2218, Amendments and judicial review, Part 2: How to amend the Constitution
How to amend the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2217, Amendments and judicial review, Part 1: Amending the Constitution
The Framers wanted the Constitution to be difficult to amend, but not sacrosanct.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2216, The Federalists, Part 14: The robust political scene of the Founding era
Political operatives in the Founding era weren't above using unsavory tactics.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2215, The Federalists, Part 13: The Constitution is ratified
On today's podcast, the Constitution is finally ratified.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2214, The Federalists, Part 12: A compromise saves the Constitution
On today's podcast, a compromise saves the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2213, The Federalists, Part 11: The lack of a bill of rights
On today's podcast, Alexander Hamilton's arguments against a bill of rights.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2212, The Federalists, Part 10: The branches of government protect basic rights
Do the three branches of government protect our basic rights? The Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2211, The Federalists, Part 9: The Constitution promotes republicanism
The Federalists argued that the rights and welfare of everyone is protected by the unamended Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2210, The Federalists, Part 8: State legislatures and civic virtue
In the early years of the American republic, state legislatures sometimes favored creditors over debtors. The Founders saw this as a betrayal of the ideals of the Revolution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2209, The Federalists, Part 7: Civic virtue is not reliable
Is civic virtue enough to ensure good government? Not according to the Federalists.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2208, The Federalists, Part 6: Federalist 10 and republican government
James Madison devised powerful arguments supporting the idea that a republic could be successful in the United States. Learn about some of these arguments on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2207, The Federalists, Part 5: The fear of faction
The Framers of the Constitution knew the danger of factions.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2206, The Federalists, Part 4: How can republican government survive?
The Federalists needed to counter the claim that republican government could not survive in America. They sent in their pinch hitter: James Madison.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2205, The Federalists, Part 3: A new science of politics
The Federalists argued that the Constitution represented a "new science of politics" that made Anti-Federalist critiques obsolete.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2204, The Federalists, Part 2: The Federalist
Today we discuss one of the most important sources of information about the Constitution: A series of essays known as The Federalist.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2203, The Federalists, Part 1: The Federalists organize
Today we kick off our series on the Federalists, who supported ratification of the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2202, The Anti-Federalists, Part 16: Concern about rights
Today on the podcast, the Anti-Federalists argue that the lack of a bill of rights is a serious flaw in the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2201, The Anti-Federalists, Part 15: The Anti-Federalists warn against tyranny
Are the general welfare and necessary and proper clauses dangerous? The Anti-Federalists thought so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2200, The Anti-Federalists, Part 14: The lack of a bill of rights
Most states already had bills of rights. So why not the Constitution?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2199, The Anti-Federalists, Part 13: Robert Yates and Patrick Henry
Why did Robert Yates and Patrick Henry object to the Constitution? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2198, The Anti-Federalists, Part 12: Senate accountability and mixed powers
The Anti-Federalists had a lot of problems with the Constitution, even with the system of checks and balances.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2197, The Anti-Federalists, Part 11: Executive and judicial power
The Anti-Federalists believed that the executive and judicial branches would have too much power under the proposed Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2196, The Anti-Federalists, Part 10: The potential for tyranny
The Anti-Federalists argued that the Constitution contained the potential for tyranny.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2195, The Anti-Federalists, Part 9: Civic virtue rather than a strong national government
The Anti-Federalists believed that civic virtue rather than a strong national government was the best solution to America's problems.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2194, The Anti-Federalists, Part 8: A distant government
Anti-Federalists argued that a distant national government would require a standing army and taxation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2193, The Anti-Federalists, Part 7: Anti-Federalist arguments against a strong national government
Today we learn some Anti-Federalists against a strong national government.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2192, The Anti-Federalists, Part 6: The effect of Anti-Federalist opinion
George Washington wrote that Anti-Federalist opposition to the Constitution might not ultimately be such a bad thing for the country.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2191, The Anti-Federalists, Part 5: Reasoned discourse
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists sought to use reasoned discourse to persuade the citizenry.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2190, The Anti-Federalists, Part 3: The ratification debates begin
Who were the Anti-Federalists? Find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2189, The Anti-Federalists, Part 3: The ratification debates begin
Today on the podcast, the ratification debates begin with a speech by Benjamin Franklin. George Mason leaves and refuses to sign the Constitution.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2188, The Anti-Federalists, Part 2: Ratification by the people
The ratification of the Constitution was consistent with John Locke's social contract theory.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2187, The Anti-Federalists, Part 1: A plan to ratify the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution went around state legislatures to get the Constitution ratified.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2186, Federalism, Part 13: Secession
Since the 1790s some states argued that they had a right to secede.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2185, Federalism, Part 12: Restricting suffrage to landowners
Gouverneur Morris suggested that suffrage should be limited to landowners. This caused an uproar.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2184, Federalism, Part 11: National citizenship
The Framers of the Constitution never defined citizenship, but left it up to the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2183, Federalism, Part 10: Slavery and commerce
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention had to compromise in order to get the authority to regulate commerce among the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2182, Federalism, Part 9: Compromises on slavery
The Framers of the Constitution had to make many compromises on the issue of slavery. Today we learn some of them.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2181, Federalism, Part 8: Slavery and the states
The words "slave" and "slavery" never appeared in the Constitution, perhaps because the Framers were ashamed of it.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2180, Federalism, Part 7: A history of protecting individual rights
The Framers saw the need to limit state power. Find out how on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2179, Federalism, Part 6: Limitations on state power
The Framers saw the need to limit state power. Find out how on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2178, Federalism, Part 5: The Constitution protects political independence.
How does the Constitution protect political independence? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2177, Federalism, Part 4: More protections of rights in the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution tried hard to protect individuals from a powerful national government. Learn how on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2176, Federalism, Part 3: Habeas corpus, ex post facto laws, and bills of attainder
Do you know what an ex post facto law is? What about a bill of attainder? They are prohibited by the Constitution. Learn more on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2175, Federalism, Part 2: Some powers of the federal government
What authority does the national government have over the states? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2174, Federalism, Part 1: Concerns about abuses by state governments
The Framers were concerned about states restricting individual freedom, so they gave the federal government some power of the states.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2173, The Three Branches of Government, Part 18: Impeachment and judicial review
Today we learn about two important checks on government: impeachment and judicial review.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2172, The Three Branches of Government, Part 17: Appointments, treaties, and warmaking powers
How do checks and balances work? Today we provide some examples.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2171, The Three Branches of Government, Part 16: Checks and balances
On today's podcast we learn about checks and balances and take a close look at the president's veto power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2170, The Three Branches of Government, Part 14: How should federal judges be selected?
How should federal judges be selected? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2169, The Three Branches of Government, Part 13: Reasons to separate the judicial branch
Why is the judicial branch independent of the president and Congress? We find out on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2168, The Three Branches of Government, Part 13: Judges and judicial power
Today we learn about judges and judicial power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2167, The Three Branches of Government, Part 12: The judicial branch
Today we learn about the federal judiciary.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2166, The Three Branches of Government, Part 11: The Electoral College explained
Today on the podcast, we explain the Electoral College.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2165, The Three Branches of Government, Part 10: Why not direct popular election?
Why didn't most Framers of the Constitution want the people to elect the president directly?
60-Second Civics: Episode 2164, The Three Branches of Government, Part 9: How should the president be selected?
Deciding how the president should be selected was a tricky matter for the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2163, The Three Branches of Government, Part 8: How long should a president remain in office?
How long should a president remain in office? The Framers' original proposal was for one seven-year term.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2162, The Three Branches of Government, Part 7: Should there be more than one chief executive?
How many chief executives should there be? Learn the arguments for and against a plural executive on today's episode.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2161, The Three Branches of Government, Part 6: An energetic executive
The Framers of the Constitution thought that the executive should have "energy." We learn why on today's podcast.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2160, The Three Branches of Government, Part 5: Broad versus enumerated powers
How broad should be the powers of Congress? The Virginia and New Jersey plans proposed different visions of legislative power.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2159, The Three Branches of Government, Part 4: Enumerated powers
Should Congress be able to make any laws it wants to? The Framers didn't think so.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2158, The Three Branches of Government, Part 3: A deliberative body
The Framers of the Constitution wanted Congress to thoroughly debate issues and avoid corruption.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2157, The Three Branches of Government, Part 2: Checks and balances
Their experiences with British royal governors led Americans to create weak executives, but this would have a cost.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2156, The Three Branches of Government, Part 1: The corruption of Parliament by the Crown
Since ancient times, philosophers have argued that governments must do three things: make, execute, and judge laws.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2155, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 19: The debate over representation in the expanding republic
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention recognized that the United States would expand, and planned accordingly.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2154, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 18: The Northern position on proportional representation
Northern delegates to the Philadelphia convention were opposed to counting slaves for purposes of representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2153, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 17: The Southern position on proportional representation
Should enslaved people be counted as persons for determining representation? This was hotly debated at the Philadelphia Convention.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2152, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 16: What does proportional representation mean?
The Great Compromise was only the first step in settling the issue of proportional representation.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2151, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 15: The Great Compromise saves the convention
The Great Compromise passed by a single vote. Each side have to give up something to make the compromise work.
60-Second Civics: Episode 2150, The Philadelphia Convention, Part 14: The Great Compromise
The Great Compromise finally broke the impasse at the Philadelphia C