We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution, Level 3
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60-Second Civics, Episode 104: The Rennaisance, Part 1    [ audio ]
The Renaissance and how it contributed to ideas about rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 105: The Rennaisance, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Renaissance and its contributions to ideas about rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 106: The Reformation, Part 1    [ audio ]
The beginning of an examination of the Protestant Reformation and its contribution to ideas about rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 107: The Reformation, Part 2    [ audio ]
The roots of the Protestant Reformation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 108: The Reformation, Part 3    [ audio ]
How the invention of the printing press aided the Reformation and encouraged freedom of conscience.

60-Second Civics, Episode 109: The Reformation, Part 4    [ audio ]
How the Reformation contributed to the development of modern individualism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 10: Judicial Review    [ audio ]
The power of judicial review.

60-Second Civics, Episode 110: The Reformation, Part 5    [ audio ]
The origin of American Puritans.

60-Second Civics, Episode 112: Rise of the Nation-State, Part 2    [ audio ]
A discussion of nation-states and ideas about government and rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 114: Rise of Capitalism, Part 2    [ audio ]
How capitalism empowered a new class of citizens.

60-Second Civics, Episode 115: Rise of Capitalism, Part 3    [ audio ]
Two influences on capitalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 117: The Enlightenment, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Enlightenment and philosopher Francis Bacon.

60-Second Civics, Episode 123: English Parliament, Part 1    [ audio ]
The origins of the English parliament and the royal court.

60-Second Civics, Episode 126: English Common Law    [ audio ]
The development of English common law.

60-Second Civics, Episode 127: Stare Decisis, Part 1    [ audio ]
The development of stare decisis in the English common law system.

60-Second Civics, Episode 131: Magna Carta, Part 1    [ audio ]
The events leading up to the signing of the Magna Carta.

60-Second Civics, Episode 13: Arguments Against Judicial Review    [ audio ]
Some of the arguments against judicial review.

60-Second Civics, Episode 14: Role of the Supreme Court    [ audio ]
The role of the Supreme Court in the American constitutional system.

60-Second Civics, Episode 153: English Practices in America    [ audio ]
How some English practices that protected the landed aristocracy in Great Britain did not survive in the colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 154: Class in the Colonies    [ audio ]
How the English class system was weakened in the colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 155: Successful Colonial Americans    [ audio ]
Some examples of successful colonial Americans.

60-Second Civics, Episode 156: Colonial Charters    [ audio ]
An examination of colonial charters.

60-Second Civics, Episode 157: Massachusetts Body of Liberties, Part 1    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Massachusetts Body of Liberties.

60-Second Civics, Episode 158: Massachusetts Body of Liberties, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Massachusetts Body of Liberties.

60-Second Civics, Episode 159: Rights in Colonial Pennsylvania    [ audio ]
Guarantees of basic rights in Pennsylvania.

60-Second Civics, Episode 15: Original Jurisdiction    [ audio ]
The Supreme Court?s original jurisdiction.

60-Second Civics, Episode 160: Rights Denied in Colonial America    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the people who did not enjoy the rights expressed in colonial documents.

60-Second Civics, Episode 161: Rights Denied in Colonial America    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the people who did not enjoy the rights expressed in colonial documents.

60-Second Civics, Episode 162: Indentured Servants in Colonial America    [ audio ]
A discussion of indentured servants in the colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 162: Indentured Servants in Colonial America    [ audio ]
Indentured servants in the colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 163: Native Americans in Colonial America    [ audio ]
The rights of Native Americans in the colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 164: Slavery in the Colonies    [ audio ]
Slavery in the American colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 165: Structure of Colonial Governments    [ audio ]
The structure of colonial governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 166: Fundamental Orders of Connecticut    [ audio ]
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.

60-Second Civics, Episode 167: Colonial Constitutions    [ audio ]
The basic principles common to all colonial constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 169: Representative Government in the Colonies    [ audio ]
Representative government and voting in the American colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 16: Appellate Jurisdiction    [ audio ]
The Supreme Court?s appellate jurisdiction.

60-Second Civics, Episode 170: Colonial Legislatures    [ audio ]
Characteristics of the colonial legislatures.

60-Second Civics, Episode 171: Colonial Governors and Courts    [ audio ]
The roles of governors and the courts in colonial governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 172: Property Requirement for Voting    [ audio ]
The property requirement for voting in the American colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 173: Colonial Legislatures Versus Parliament    [ audio ]
Differences between colonial American legislatures and the British Parliament.

60-Second Civics, Episode 176: Seeds of Revolution    [ audio ]
How Britain tried to increase its control of the colonies between 1763 and 1776.

60-Second Civics, Episode 177: Colonial Resistance Grows    [ audio ]
Colonial resistance to British control.

60-Second Civics, Episode 178: No Taxation Without Representation    [ audio ]
Colonial resistance to taxation without representation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 179: Colonists Organize Resistance    [ audio ]
A discussion of British efforts to assert authority over the colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 17: Writs of Certiorari    [ audio ]
How the Supreme Court decides to hear a case.

60-Second Civics, Episode 180: Writs of Assistance    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Writs of Assistance.

60-Second Civics, Episode 181: Boston Massacre    [ audio ]
An examination of the Boston Massacre.

60-Second Civics, Episode 182: Boston Tea Party    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Boston Tea Party.

60-Second Civics, Episode 183: First Continental Congress    [ audio ]
A discussion of the First Continental Congress.

60-Second Civics, Episode 184: Armed Resistance    [ audio ]
Armed resistance to British rule in the American colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 185: Lexington and Concord    [ audio ]
The battles of Lexington and Concord.

60-Second Civics, Episode 186: Growing Consensus    [ audio ]
The growing consensus for American independence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 187: Declaration of Independence, Part 1    [ audio ]
The Founders' reasons for issuing a formal declaration of independence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 188: Declaration of Independence, Part 2    [ audio ]
The philosophical underpinnings of the Declaration of Independence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 189: Declaration of Independence, Part 3    [ audio ]
Natural rights philosophy as a foundational idea of the Declaration of Independence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 18: Declining Supreme Court Caseload    [ audio ]
How the number of cases the Supreme Court decides has changed in recent years.

60-Second Civics, Episode 190: Declaration of Independence, Part 4    [ audio ]
The concepts of human equality and government by consent in the Declaration of Independence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 191: Declaration of Independence, Part 5    [ audio ]
The "long Train of Abuses" of King George III.

60-Second Civics, Episode 192: Declaration of Independence, Part 6    [ audio ]
The idea of the right to revolution in the Declaration of Independence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 193: State Governments After the Declaration, Part 1    [ audio ]
The beginning of our discussion of state governments after the Declaration of Independence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 194: State Governments After the Declaration, Part 2    [ audio ]
State governments after 1776.

60-Second Civics, Episode 195: Principles of State Constitutions    [ audio ]
Common principles in all state constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 196: State Constitutions: Higher Law and Natural High    [ audio ]
Higher law and natural rights in state constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 197: State Constitutions: Social Contract and Popular    [ audio ]
The ideas of social contract and popular sovereignty in state constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 198: Right To Vote In Early America    [ audio ]
Representation and the right to vote in early American state constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 199: Legislative Supremacy, Part 1    [ audio ]
The concept of legislative supremacy in American state constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 19: Written Opinions    [ audio ]
The Supreme Court's practice of issuing written opinions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 200: Legislative Supremacy, Part 2    [ audio ]
The reasons for states' confidence in legislative supremacy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 201: Legislative Supremacy, Part 3    [ audio ]
A third reason for states' confidence in legislative supremacy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 202: Legislative Supremacy, Part 4    [ audio ]
Examples of legislative supremacy in state constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 203: Legislative Supremacy, Part 5    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of legislative supremacy in state constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 204: Massachusetts Constitution, Part 1    [ audio ]
An examination of the Massachusetts constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 205: Massachusetts Constitution, Part 2    [ audio ]
A discussion about the executive branch of the Massachusetts constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 206: Massachusetts Constitution, Part 3    [ audio ]
The representation of various economic classes in the Massachusetts constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 20: Constitutional Interpretation: Textualism    [ audio ]
An examination of textualism, the first of four common methods of constitutional interpretation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 21: Constitutional Interpretation: Original Intent    [ audio ]
An examination of original intent, the second of four common methods of constitutional interpretation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 22: Constitutional Interpretation: Fundamental Princi    [ audio ]
An examination of fundamental principles, the third of four common methods of constitutional interpretation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 236: Six Principles of Nonviolence, No. 5: Love, Not    [ audio ]
Martin Luther King Jr.'s fifth principle of nonviolence: that nonviolence chooses love instead of hate.

60-Second Civics, Episode 23: Constitutional Interpretation: Instrumentalism    [ audio ]
An examination of instrumentalism, the final of four common methods of constitutional interpretation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 24: Self-Imposed Limits on the Supreme Court    [ audio ]
Self-imposed limits, one of several checks on the power of the Supreme Court.

60-Second Civics, Episode 25: Presidential Appointments and the Supreme Court    [ audio ]
Presidential appointments as a check on the power of the Supreme Court.

60-Second Civics, Episode 26: Executive Enforcement of Supreme Court Decisions    [ audio ]
Executive enforcement of Supreme Court decisions as a check on the power of the Court.

60-Second Civics, Episode 27: Congress and the Power of the Supreme Court    [ audio ]
The ability of Congress to check the power of the Supreme Court.

60-Second Civics, Episode 28: Congressional Hearings, Part 1    [ audio ]
A discussion of congressional hearings, an essential part of the process of appointing a Supreme Court nominee.

60-Second Civics, Episode 29: An Overview of Congressional Hearings    [ audio ]
The six steps of a congressional hearing.

60-Second Civics, Episode 30: Congressional Hearing Witnesses    [ audio ]
The role of witnesses in a congressional hearing.

60-Second Civics, Episode 31: Witness Testimony in Congressional Hearings    [ audio ]
Written and spoken testimony by witnesses in congressional hearings.

60-Second Civics, Episode 32: Opening Statements in Congressional Hearings    [ audio ]
The role of opening statements in congressional hearings.

60-Second Civics, Episode 336: Concerns About State Governments    [ audio ]
Concerns about the power of state governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 35: Federalism    [ audio ]
The beginning of our discussion of the American system of federalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 36: Role of States in the Federal System    [ audio ]
The history of the role of states in the American system.

60-Second Civics, Episode 37: States And The Federal Government    [ audio ]
The role of states in the national government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 38: Constitution Prohibits Certain State Powers    [ audio ]
State governing powers prohibited by the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 39: State Governing Powers    [ audio ]
A discussion of governing powers left to the states by the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 40: Supremacy of Federal Law    [ audio ]
A discussion of the supremacy of federal law.

60-Second Civics, Episode 41: State Constitutions    [ audio ]
A discussion of state constitutions and bills of rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 42: State Legislatures    [ audio ]
A discussion of the legislative branch of state government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 43: Executive Branch of State Government    [ audio ]
An examination of the executive branch of state government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 44: Judicial Branch of State Government    [ audio ]
A discussion on the judicial branch of state government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 45: Local Governments    [ audio ]
A discussion about the creation of local governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 46: Municipalities    [ audio ]
A discussion about municipalities.

60-Second Civics, Episode 47: Special Districts    [ audio ]
A discussion about special districts.

60-Second Civics, Episode 48: Changing State Constitutions    [ audio ]
How state constitutions have changed over the years.

60-Second Civics, Episode 49: State Constitutional Amendments    [ audio ]
A discussion about state constitutional amendments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 4: George Washington and the Executive Branch    [ audio ]
How George Washington's administration shaped the executive branch.

60-Second Civics, Episode 50: Federalism in Practice    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of how American federalism works in practice.

60-Second Civics, Episode 51: Regulation of Commerce    [ audio ]
The conflict between Congress and the states over regulation of commerce.

60-Second Civics, Episode 52: Regulation of Drugs    [ audio ]
How the Supreme Court reasserted the power of Congress to regulate the interstate market in drugs.

60-Second Civics, Episode 53: Grants-in-aid    [ audio ]
How grant-in-aid programs have affected American federalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 54: Grants-in-aid: The Great Depression    [ audio ]
How grants-in-aid came to be used during the Great Depression.

60-Second Civics, Episode 55: Grants-in-aid: Growing Influence    [ audio ]
The growing influence of federal grants-in-aid.

60-Second Civics, Episode 56: Grants-in-aid: Education Policy    [ audio ]
A discussion of federal grants-in-aid and education policy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 57: States as Laboratories of Democracy    [ audio ]
How the states act as testing grounds for democracy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 58: Initiatives    [ audio ]
How the initiative process is conducted in the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 5: George Washington and Executive Branch Authority    [ audio ]
How George Washington's actions established the authority of the presidency.

60-Second Civics, Episode 61: Philosophical and Historical Traditions    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the important philosophical ideas and historical events that influenced the writing of the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 62: Influences on the Founders    [ audio ]
How the Founders' knowledge and experiences informed their approach to governance.

60-Second Civics, Episode 63: Greeks, Romans, and Natural Rights    [ audio ]
Lessons the Founders drew from Greek and Roman political history, and from natural rights philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 64: Lessons From British and American History    [ audio ]
Lessons the Founders drew from British history and from American colonial history.

60-Second Civics, Episode 66: Aristotle: Three Functions of the State    [ audio ]
Aristotle's notion of the three functions of the state.

60-Second Civics, Episode 67: Aristotle: The Forms of Government    [ audio ]
Aristotle's concept of the forms of government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 68: Aristotle: Polity    [ audio ]
Aristotle's conception of polity as a right form of government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 69: Aristotle: Democracy    [ audio ]
Aristotle's description of democracy as a corrupt form of government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 70: Aristotle: Mixed Constitutions    [ audio ]
Aristotle's ideas about mixed constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 71: Mixed Constitutions: Polybius and Cicero    [ audio ]
How the idea of a mixed constitution became part of republicanism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 72: Mixed Constitutions: The English System    [ audio ]
A discussion of the English system as an example of a mixed constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 73: Republican Government    [ audio ]
A discussion of republican government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 75: Constitutionalism: Defining Constitution    [ audio ]
A definition of the term, "constitution."

60-Second Civics, Episode 76: Constitutionalism: Written vs. Unwritten Constitu    [ audio ]
An examination of written and unwritten constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 77: Constitutionalism: Limited Government    [ audio ]
A comparison of limited and unlimited governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 78: Constitution As Higher Law    [ audio ]
How a constitution acts as a higher law.

60-Second Civics, Episode 79: A Problem of Constitutional Government    [ audio ]
The problem of constitutional governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 7: George Washington and Slavery    [ audio ]
How George Washington reconciled being a slaveholder with his leadership of a nation dedicated to freedom for all.

60-Second Civics, Episode 80: Influence of the Roman Republic    [ audio ]
The influence of the Roman Republic.

60-Second Civics, Episode 81: The Roman Republic As Example and Warning    [ audio ]
How the history of the Roman Republic was both an example and a warning to America's founding generation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 82: Classical Republicanism and the Common Good    [ audio ]
A discussion of the devotion of citizens to the common good as a central feature classical republicanism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 84: Citizenship and Civic Virtue in Classical Republi    [ audio ]
Citizenship and civic virtue in classical republicanism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 88: Divine Right    [ audio ]
Discussion of the role of philosophy in government and examination of the divine right of kings.

60-Second Civics, Episode 89: Natural Rights Philosophy    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the role of philosophy in the study of government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 8: The Creation of the Judicial Branch    [ audio ]
Having provided context for the Supreme Court confirmation hearings for justice Sonia Sotomayor, over the span of a few weeks 60-Second Civics examined the judicial branch of the United States government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 90: Natural Rights Philosophy: Influence on Founders    [ audio ]
The values from natural rights philosophy that influenced the founding generation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 91: Natural Rights Philosophy: Thomas Hobbes    [ audio ]
The philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.

60-Second Civics, Episode 92: Natural Rights Philosophy: John Locke    [ audio ]
The philosophy of John Locke.

60-Second Civics, Episode 93: Natural Rights Philosophy: Individual Rights    [ audio ]
Individual rights as an aspect of natural rights philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 94: Natural Rights Philosophy: Popular Sovereignty an    [ audio ]
Popular sovereignty and government by consent as aspects of natural rights philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 95: Natural Rights Philosophy: Limited Government    [ audio ]
A discussion of limited government as an aspect of natural rights philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 96: Natural Rights Philosophy: Human Equality    [ audio ]
An examination of human equality as an aspect of natural rights philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 97: The Judeo-Christian Tradition, Part 1    [ audio ]
How Judeo-Christian tradition influenced the political ideas of the Founders.

60-Second Civics, Episode 9: Characteristics of the Federal Judiciary    [ audio ]
Some of the characteristics of the federal judiciary.

"The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin," a lecture by Gordon Wood    [ audio ]
Gordon Wood, the author of "The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin" discusses Franklin's life in this podcast from the Gilder Lehrman Institute.

03/20/1965: LBJ Sends Federal Troops to Alabama    [ video ]
President Lyndon B Johnson sent troops to Alabama Civil Rights march by the History Channel.

09/25/1957: Central High School Integrated    [ video ]
President Eisenhower sent troops to Central High by the History Channel.

60-Second Civic, Episode 210: Virginia Declaration of Rights, Part 3    [ audio ]
A discussion of the rights protected by the Virginia Declaration of Rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 100: Feudalism, Part 1    [ audio ]
Feudalism in medieval society.

60-Second Civics, Episode 101: Feudalism, Part 2    [ audio ]
The first two of four ideas about feudalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 102: Feudalism, Part 3    [ audio ]
The final two ideas, out of four, about feudalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 103: Medieval and Classical Republican Similarities    [ audio ]
Similarities between medieval and classical republican ideas about society and government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 111: Rise of the Nation-State, Part 1    [ audio ]
The rise of the nation-state.

60-Second Civics, Episode 113: Rise of Capitalism, Part 1    [ audio ]
The rise of capitalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 116: The Enlightenment, Part 1    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the Enlightenment.

60-Second Civics, Episode 118: The Enlightenment, Part 3    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Enlightenment.

60-Second Civics, Episode 119: The Enlightenment, Part 4    [ audio ]
James Madison's idea of the "new science of politics."

60-Second Civics, Episode 120: British Origins of American Constitutionalism    [ audio ]
A discussion of the British origins of American constitutionalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 121: England After the Romans    [ audio ]
The origins of English government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 122: Norman Conquest    [ audio ]
An examination of how the Norman conquest changed English government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 124: English Parliament, Part 2    [ audio ]
King Edward I's Model Parliament.

60-Second Civics, Episode 125: English Parliament, Part 3    [ audio ]
A discussion of how Parliament proved to be effective for both the English king and his subjects.

60-Second Civics, Episode 128: Stare Decisis, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of stare decisis.

60-Second Civics, Episode 129: Rights of Englishmen, Part 1    [ audio ]
Discussion of the rights of Englishmen.

60-Second Civics, Episode 130: Rights of Englishmen, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the rights of Englishmen.

60-Second Civics, Episode 132: Magna Carta, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Magna Carta.

60-Second Civics, Episode 133: Magna Carta, Part 3    [ audio ]
The Magna Carta and the rule of law.

60-Second Civics, Episode 134: Magna Carta, Part 4    [ audio ]
A discussion of how the Magna Carta contained the principle of the supremacy of the law.

60-Second Civics, Episode 135: Magna Carta, Part 5    [ audio ]
A discussion of respect for human rights as a principle of the Magna Carta.

60-Second Civics, Episode 136: Magna Carta, Part 6    [ audio ]
A discussion of government by agreement or contract as a principle of the Magna Carta.

60-Second Civics, Episode 137: Magna Carta, Part 7    [ audio ]
The Magna Carta as a source of constitutional principles.

60-Second Civics, Episode 138: The British Constitution    [ audio ]
A discussion of the British constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 139: The British Constitution: Foundational Documents    [ audio ]
Three historical documents important in the development of the British constitution and the rights of the British people.

60-Second Civics, Episode 140: Petition of Right, Part 1    [ audio ]
The clash between Parliament and the English monarchy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 141: Petition of Right, Part 2    [ audio ]
Events that led to the Petition of Right of 1628.

60-Second Civics, Episode 142: Petition of Right, Part 3    [ audio ]
Characteristics of the Petition of Right of 1628

60-Second Civics, Episode 143: English Civil War    [ audio ]
The events leading to the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679.

60-Second Civics, Episode 144: Writ of Habeas Corpus    [ audio ]
The writ of habeas corpus.

60-Second Civics, Episode 146: English Bill of Rights, Part 1    [ audio ]
The English Bill of Rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 147: English Bill of Rights, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the English Bill of Rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 148: American Colonies    [ audio ]
How basic ideas of constitutional government were developed and used in the American colonies.

60-Second Civics, Episode 149: Early American Settlement    [ audio ]
The situation in America in the early 1600s.

60-Second Civics, Episode 150: Mayflower Compact    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Mayflower Compact.

60-Second Civics, Episode 151: Mayflower Compact, Part 2    [ audio ]
Excerpted text from the Mayflower Compact

60-Second Civics, Episode 152: Colonial Prosperity    [ audio ]
How some colonial Americans achieved prosperity in the New World.

60-Second Civics, Episode 168: Fundamental Rights and the Rule of Law    [ audio ]
Fundamental rights and the rule of law as aspects of colonial constitutions.

60-Second Civics, Episode 207: Introduction to State Declarations of Rights    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of state declarations of rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 208: Virginia Declaration of Rights, Part 1    [ audio ]
An examination of the Virginia Declaration of Rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 211: States' Bills of Rights, Part 1    [ audio ]
An examination of states' bills of rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 212: States' Bills of Rights, Part 2    [ audio ]
An examination of specific rights guaranteed in states' bills of rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 213: States' Bills of Rights, Part 3    [ audio ]
A discussion of features of states' bills or declarations of rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 214: Articles of Confederation, Part 1    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 215: Articles of Confederation, Part 2    [ audio ]
The roles of Benjamin Franklin and Richard Henry Lee in bringing about the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 216: Articles of Confederation, Part 3    [ audio ]
The colonists' fear of a strong government and how it affected the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 217: Articles of Confederation, Part 4    [ audio ]
How the Continental Congress avoided a strong central government when they adopted the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 218: Articles of Confederation, Part 5    [ audio ]
How the Articles of Confederation created a ???firm league of friendship" among the states instead of a strong central government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 219: Articles of Confederation, Part 6    [ audio ]
The powers kept by the states under the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 220: Articles of Confederation, Part 7    [ audio ]
Three issues that aligned groups of states against one another.

60-Second Civics, Episode 221: Articles of Confederation, Part 8    [ audio ]
The solutions to states' concerns about the national government's power that paved the way for adopting the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 222: Civil Rights Movement, Part 1    [ audio ]
The beginning of a celebration of Black History Month with the first in a series of episodes devoted to the civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 223: Civil Rights Movement, Part 2    [ audio ]
The effect of the Civil War Amendments on the civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 224: Civil Rights Movement, Part 3    [ audio ]
Two types of segregation that contributed to racial polarization in the United States.

60-Second Civics, Episode 225: Civil Rights Movement, Part 4    [ audio ]
How racial segregation and discrimination was deeply entrenched in American life in the 1950s.

60-Second Civics, Episode 226: Civil Rights Movement, Part 5    [ audio ]
How the increase in racially motivated violence in the 1950s prompted federal intervention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 227: Civil Rights Movement, Part 6    [ audio ]
The origins of the American civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 228: Civil Rights Movement, Part 7    [ audio ]
The importance of nonviolence in the civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 229: Civil Rights Movement, Part 8    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

60-Second Civics, Episode 230: Civil Rights Movement, Part 9    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

60-Second Civics, Episode 231: Civil Rights Movement, Part 10    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

60-Second Civics, Episode 232: Six Principles of Nonviolence, No. 1: Courage    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of Martin Luther King Jr.'s six principles of nonviolence.

60-Second Civics, Episode 233: Six Principles of Nonviolence, No. 2: Reconciliat    [ audio ]
Martin Luther King Jr.'s second principle of nonviolence: nonviolence seeks reconciliation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 234: Six Principles of Nonviolence, No. 3: Defeat Inju    [ audio ]
Martin Luther King Jr.'s third principle of nonviolence: that nonviolence seeks to defeat injustice, not people.

60-Second Civics, Episode 235: Six Principles of Nonviolence, No. 4: Educate and    [ audio ]
Martin Luther King Jr.'s fourth principle of nonviolence: that nonviolence educates and reforms.

60-Second Civics, Episode 237: Six Principles of Nonviolence, No. 6: The Univers    [ audio ]
Martin Luther King Jr.'s sixth principle of nonviolence: that the universe is on the side of justice.

60-Second Civics, Episode 238: Practitioners of Nonviolence: Thoreau, Gandhi, an    [ audio ]
How some of the most famous practitioners of nonviolence influenced each other.

60-Second Civics, Episode 239: Freedom Rides    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Freedom Rides.

60-Second Civics, Episode 240: Role of the Courts, Part 1: Brown v. Board    [ audio ]
A discussion of Brown v. Board of Education.

60-Second Civics, Episode 241: Role of the Courts, Part 2: Enforcing Brow    [ audio ]
The difficulties with enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education decision.

60-Second Civics, Episode 242: Role of the Church in the Civil Rights Movement,    [ audio ]
The role of the African American church in the years leading up to the civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 243: Role of the Church in the Civil Rights Movement,    [ audio ]
Further discussion of the role of the African American church during the civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 244: The Children's March of 1963    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Children's March of 1963.

60-Second Civics, Episode 245: Bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church    [ audio ]
The bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in 1963.

60-Second Civics, Episode 246, Civil Rights Activists, Part 1: Fred Shuttleswort    [ audio ]
The life of Fred Shuttlesworth, a leading figure of the civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 247: Civil Rights Activists, Part 2: Dorothy Cotton    [ audio ]
The life of civil rights leader Dorothy Cotton.

60-Second Civics, Episode 248: Civil Rights Activists, Part 3: John Lewis    [ audio ]
The contributions of Congressman John Lewis to the civil rights movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 249: Civil Rights Activists, Part 4: Andrew Young    [ audio ]
The life of civil rights activist Andrew Young.

60-Second Civics, Episode 250: Civil Rights Activists, Part 5: Mabel Staupers    [ audio ]
The life of nursing pioneer Mabel Staupers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 251: Civil Rights Activists, Part 6: Septima Clark    [ audio ]
A discussion of Septima Clark, known as the "Queen Mother of the American Civil Rights Movement."

60-Second Civics, Episode 252: Civil Rights Activists, Part 7: Carolyn McKinstry    [ audio ]
Civil rights activist Carolyn McKinstry.

60-Second Civics, Episode 253: Doug Jones    [ audio ]
A discussion of attorney Doug Jones, who successfully prosecuted two Birmingham bombers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 254: Civil Rights Since the Mid-20th Century, Part 1    [ audio ]
How the movement for civil rights has changed since the mid-twentieth century.

60-Second Civics, Episode 255: Civil Rights Since the Mid-20th Century, Part 2:    [ audio ]
The farm workers' movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 256: Civil Rights Since the Mid-20th Century, Part 3:    [ audio ]
The American Indian Movement.

60-Second Civics, Episode 257: Civil Rights Since the Mid-20th Century, Part 4:    [ audio ]
The movement for women's rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 258: Civil Rights Since the Mid-20th Century, Part 5:    [ audio ]
The Equal Rights Amendment.

60-Second Civics, Episode 259: Achievements of the Articles of Confederation, Pa    [ audio ]
An examination of the achievements of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 260: Achievements of the Articles of Confederation, Pa    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Northwest Ordinance.

60-Second Civics, Episode 261: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
A discussion about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 262: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
How the national government was unable to protect loyalists from the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 263: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
Localists versus cosmopolitans in post-Revolutionary America.

60-Second Civics, Episode 264: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
Majority tyranny in post-Revolutionary America.

60-Second Civics, Episode 265: Attempts to Reform the Articles of Confederation,    [ audio ]
A discussion about attempts to solve the problems of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 266: Attempts to Reform the Articles of Confederation,    [ audio ]
A discussion about demands for a constitutional convention caused by the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 267: Attempts to Reform the Articles of Confederation,    [ audio ]
The failure of the Annapolis convention and calls for a new convention to amend the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 268: Shays' Rebellion, Part 1    [ audio ]
A discussion about Shays' Rebellion.

60-Second Civics, Episode 269: Shays' Rebellion, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of Shays' Rebellion.

60-Second Civics, Episode 270: Shays' Rebellion, Part 3    [ audio ]
The conclusion to a discussion of Shays' Rebellion.

60-Second Civics, Episode 271: Philadelphia Convention, Part 1: Overview    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 272: Philadelphia Convention, Part 2: The Framers    [ audio ]
A discussion about the Framers of the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 273: Philadelphia Convention, Part 3: Demographics of    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Framers of the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 274: Philadelphia Convention, Part 4: Max Farrand on t    [ audio ]
A discussion on Max Farrand's statement about the Framers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 275: Philadelphia Convention, Part 5: George Washingto    [ audio ]
George Washington and the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 276: Philadelphia Convention, Part 6: James Madison's    [ audio ]
James Madison's role in the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 277: Philadelphia Convention, Part 7: Franklin, Hamilt    [ audio ]
Benjamin Franklin's, Alexander Hamilton's, and James Wilson's participation in the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 278: Philadelphia Convention, Part 8: Morris, Randolph    [ audio ]
Gouverneur Morris, Edmund Randolph, and Roger Sherman, and their roles at the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 279: Philadelphia Convention, Part 9: Missing Founders    [ audio ]
A discussion of some of the important Founders who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 280: Philadelphia Convention, Part 10: Rhode Island    [ audio ]
Why Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 281: Philadelphia Convention, Part 11: Rules of Debate    [ audio ]
A discussion of three of the rules adopted for the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 282: Philadelphia Convention, Part 12: Rules of Debate    [ audio ]
A discussion of four key rules of the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 283: Philadelphia Convention, Part 13: Civil Discourse    [ audio ]
The importance of civil discourse during the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 284: Philadelphia Convention, Part 14: Secrecy    [ audio ]
Why the Framers wanted to keep the proceedings of the Philadelphia Convention secret.

60-Second Civics, Episode 285: Philadelphia Convention, Part 15: Committees    [ audio ]
The four key committees of the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 286: Philadelphia Convention, Part 16: Madison and the    [ audio ]
James Madison's proposal for government: the Virginia Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 287: Philadelphia Convention, Part 17: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The strength of the national government under the Virginia Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 288: Philadelphia Convention, Part 18: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The Virginia Plan and federalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 289: Philadelphia Convention, Part 19: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The national legislature under the Virgina Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 290: Philadelphia Convention, Part 20: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The powers of Congress under the Virginia Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 291: Philadelphia Convention, Part 21: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The Virginia Plan's proposal to create a two-house Congress.

60-Second Civics, Episode 292: Philadelphia Convention, Part 22: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
A discussion on disagreements about representation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 293: Philadelphia Convention, Part 23: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The preference of some delegates at the Philadelphia Convention for equal representation of the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 294: Philadelphia Convention, Part 24: Crisis Over Rep    [ audio ]
The crisis over representation at the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 295: Philadelphia Convention, Part 25: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the New Jersey Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 296: Philadelphia Convention, Part 26: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
The powers of Congress under the New Jersey Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 297: Philadelphia Convention, Part 27: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
How the New Jersey Plan was meant to reform the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 298: Philadelphia Convention, Part 28: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
How the rejection of the New Jersey Plan threatened the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 299: Philadelphia Convention, Part 29: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
The delegates' plan to save the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 2: George Washington and civilian control of the Milit    [ audio ]
The man often called the father of our country, George Washington, established the principle that the military is subordinate to civilian government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 300: Philadelphia Convention, Part 30: Great Compromis    [ audio ]
The first steps taken toward the Great Compromise at the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 301: Philadelphia Convention, Part 31: Great Compromis    [ audio ]
The gains and losses on both sides in the Great Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 302: Philadelphia Convention, Part 32: Great Compromis    [ audio ]
Opposition to the Great Compromise led to a crisis at the Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 303: Philadelphia Convention, Part 33: Madison and the    [ audio ]
James Madison's opposition to the Great Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 304: Philadelphia Convention, Part 34: Introduction to    [ audio ]
The debate that led to the Three-Fifths Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 305: Philadelphia Convention, Part 35: Three-Fifths Co    [ audio ]
The Southern position in the debate over proportional representation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 306: Philadelphia Convention, Part 36: Three-Fifths Co    [ audio ]
The Northern position in the debate over proportional representation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 307: Philadelphia Convention, Part 37: Three-Fifths Co    [ audio ]
The conclusion to an examination of the Three-Fifths Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 308: Philadelphia Convention, Part 38: Balance of Powe    [ audio ]
The delegates address the representation of new states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 309: Philadelphia Convention, Part 39: New States and    [ audio ]
The delegates address the admission of new states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 310: Introduction to the Three Branches of Government    [ audio ]
An introduction of the three branches of the U.S. government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 311: The Framers and the Balance of Power    [ audio ]
What were the delegates' thoughts on the balance of power?

60-Second Civics, Episode 312: Problems with a Weak Executive    [ audio ]
Colonial Americans preferred a weak executive, but at what cost?

60-Second Civics, Episode 313: Congress as a Deliberative Body    [ audio ]
How the powers of Congress were organized by the delegates.

60-Second Civics, Episode 314: Powers of Congress    [ audio ]
Today, we examine the two categories of congressional power.

60-Second Civics, Episode 315: Executive Power    [ audio ]
The Framers' deliberations over the power of the executive branch.

60-Second Civics, Episode 316: Executive Balance    [ audio ]
The balance sought by Congress between an energetic executive and limited government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 317: Philadelphia Convention: A Singular Executive    [ audio ]
A discussion of a singular, as opposed to a plural, executive.

60-Second Civics, Episode 319: Reelection of the President    [ audio ]
The Framers' decision on whether the president should be eligible for reelection.

60-Second Civics, Episode 320: Opposition to Direct Election of the President    [ audio ]
How should the president be selected?

60-Second Civics, Episode 321: Arguments For Direct Election of the President    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Framers' debate over direct election of the president.

60-Second Civics, Episode 322: Indirect Election of the President    [ audio ]
Philadelphia Convention delegates' consideration of indirect election of the president.

60-Second Civics, Episode 323: Considering Presidential Selection    [ audio ]
A discussion of the idea of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 324: Features of the Electoral College, Part 1    [ audio ]
A discussion of features of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 325: Features of the Electoral College, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion on features of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 326: Problems with the Electoral College    [ audio ]
The conclusion of a discussion of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 327: Origins of the Federal Judiciary    [ audio ]
How the judiciary branch completed the system of separation of powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 328: The Federal Judiciary    [ audio ]
The Framers' decisions about the powers of the Supreme Court.

60-Second Civics, Episode 329: Shared Powers    [ audio ]
How powers are shared among the branches of government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 330: Checks and Balances    [ audio ]
The system of separated and shared powers known as "checks and balances."

60-Second Civics, Episode 331: Appointments and Treaties    [ audio ]
A look at the power to make appointments and negotiate treaties.

60-Second Civics, Episode 332: The Power to Declare and Wage War    [ audio ]
A discussion of the shared power to wage and declare war.

60-Second Civics, Episode 334: Judicial Review    [ audio ]
A discussion of judicial review.

60-Second Civics, Episode 335: National and State Powers    [ audio ]
The relationship between national and state powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 337: Powers of the National Government, Part 1    [ audio ]
Powers of the national government over the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 338: Powers of the National Government, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the powers of the national government over the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 339: Limitations on the National Government    [ audio ]
Limits on the power of the national government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 33: Witness Procedures During Congressional Hearings    [ audio ]
Witness procedures and strategies during congressional hearings.

60-Second Civics, Episode 340: Habeas Corpus    [ audio ]
Habeas corpus and other protections of individual rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 341: Ex Post Facto Laws and Bills of Attainder    [ audio ]
A discussion of ex post facto laws and bills of attainder.

60-Second Civics, Episode 342: Political Independence of Public Officials    [ audio ]
The constitutional provisions for the political independence of public officials.

60-Second Civics, Episode 343: More Protections of Political Independence    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the political independence of public officials.

60-Second Civics, Episode 344: Limits on State Powers    [ audio ]
Constitutional limits on the power of state governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 345: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 1    [ audio ]
How slavery affected state and national powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 346: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of how slavery affected state and national powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 347: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 3    [ audio ]
More continued discussion of how slavery affected state and national powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 348: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 4    [ audio ]
The conclusion to a discussion of slavery and the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 349: Issues Unaddressed by the Constitutional Conventi    [ audio ]
Some issues that were not addressed at the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 34: Questions and Closing Statements During Congressi    [ audio ]
The conclusion of a discussion of congressional hearings by examining the questioning of witnesses and closing statements.

60-Second Civics, Episode 350: The Constitution and Voting Rights    [ audio ]
A discussion on the Constitution and voting rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 351: Representation in the House of Representatives    [ audio ]
The Framer's debates over suffrage in Congress.

60-Second Civics, Episode 352: National Versus State Power    [ audio ]
A discussion of conflicts between state and national power.

60-Second Civics, Episode 353: Secession    [ audio ]
A discussion on the issue of secession.

60-Second Civics, Episode 354: Ratification    [ audio ]
The beginning of an examination of the ratification of the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 355: Problems With Amending the Articles of Confederat    [ audio ]
The problems with amending the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 356: Ratification: Approval by the People    [ audio ]
James Madison's plan for ratification.

60-Second Civics, Episode 357: Ratification and Social Contract Theory    [ audio ]
How the plan to ratify the Constitution was consistent with natural rights philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 358: Opposition to Ratification    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the debates over the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 359: The Anti-Federalists    [ audio ]
An introduction to the Anti-Federalists.

60-Second Civics, Episode 360: Anti-Federalists    [ audio ]
A discussion of leading Anti-Federalists.

60-Second Civics, Episode 361: Ratification and Reasoned Discourse    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the ratification debates.

60-Second Civics, Episode 362: Anti-Federalist Principles    [ audio ]
Key elements of the Anti-Federalists' opposition to the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 363: Anti-Federalist Fears of Distant Government    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalists' beliefs about governance over great distances.

60-Second Civics, Episode 364: Anti-Federalists on Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
A look at the Anti-Federalist beliefs about civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 365: Anti-Federalist Fears    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalist opinions about the dangers of the government proposed by the new Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 366: Anti-Federalist Concerns about Congress    [ audio ]
Specific Anti-Federalist arguments against the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 367: Anti-Federalist Fears About the Executive Branch    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalist concerns about the power of the president.

60-Second Civics, Episode 368: Anti-Federalist Concerns about the National Judic    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalist concerns about the national judiciary.

60-Second Civics, Episode 369: Anti-Federalists and Checks and Balances    [ audio ]
The Anti-Federalist problem with the system of checks and balances.

60-Second Civics, Episode 370: Anti-Federalists and Checks and Balances    [ audio ]
Further examination of the system of checks and balances.

60-Second Civics, Episode 371: Domination by an Elite    [ audio ]
Further examination of the fears of the Anti-Federalists.

60-Second Civics, Episode 372: Anti-Federalists and the Bill of Rights    [ audio ]
The Philadelphia Convention delegates' greatest tactical error.

60-Second Civics, Episode 373: Anti-Federalists Argue for a Bill of Rights    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalists' concern of a "distant" national government and the need for a bill of rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 374: Anti-Federalist Worries about Individual Freedoms    [ audio ]
Why the Anti-Federalists were concerned about the lack of a bill of rights in the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 375: More Anti-Federalist Objections to the Constituti    [ audio ]
Why the Anti-Federalists were concerned about the broad powers of the government under the proposed Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 376: Anti-Federalists and Republican Principles    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalists wanted to remind the people of the principles of our political system.

60-Second Civics, Episode 377, The Federalists organize quickly    [ audio ]
The Federalists organize quickly to counter their opponents.

60-Second Civics, Episode 378: The Federalists and the Ratification Debates    [ audio ]
Three men--Hamilton, Madison, and Jay--publish essays in support of ratification.

60-Second Civics, Episode 379: The Federalist and the "New Science of Politics"    [ audio ]
The Federalist and the "new science of politics."

60-Second Civics, Episode 380: The Central Problem of Republican Government    [ audio ]
The Federalist response to Anti-Federalist fears of a large republic.

60-Second Civics, Episode 381: Federalist 10: Part 1    [ audio ]
Madison's solution to the problem of a republican government over a large geographic region.

60-Second Civics, Episode 382: Federalist 10: Part 2    [ audio ]
Madison's views on the dangers of faction.

60-Second Civics, Episode 383: Federalist 10: Part 3    [ audio ]
Majority tyranny defined by James Madison.

60-Second Civics, Episode 384: Federalist 10: Part 4    [ audio ]
Madison's views on the benefits of a large, diverse republic.

60-Second Civics, Episode 385: Federalist Arguments about Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
We begin an examination of the Federalists' views on civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 386: Federalist Mistrust of Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Federalists and civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 387: The Constitution Does Not Rely on Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
The Federalist claim that the national government created by the Constitution did not rely on civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 388: The Constitution Protects the Common Good    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Federalist claims about how the Constitution promotes the goals of republicanism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 389: The Constitution: Not Too Complicated    [ audio ]
James Madison's rebuttal to the claim that the Constitution was too complicated to be effective.

60-Second Civics, Episode 3: George Washington and Ratification of the Constitut    [ audio ]
George Washington's role during the Constitutional Convention and the debates over ratification.

60-Second Civics, Episode 59: Referendum and Recall    [ audio ]
How referendum and recall works in the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 60: National Conference of State Legislatures    [ audio ]
Concluding our discussion of American federalism by learning about the National Conference of State Legislatures.

60-Second Civics, Episode 65: Two Lessons About Government    [ audio ]
Two important lessons the Founders learned about government from their study of history and philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 74: The Founders Choose Republican Government    [ audio ]
Why the Founders preferred republican government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 83: Small Communities in Classical Republicanism    [ audio ]
An examination of small, uniform communities as an influential aspect of classical republicanism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 85: Cincinnatus and Washington as Examples of Civic Vi    [ audio ]
Cincinnatus and Washington as examples of civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 86: Moral Education, Part 1    [ audio ]
Moral education as an aspect of classical republicanism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 87: Moral Education, Part 2    [ audio ]
How moral education was taught in colonial America.

60-Second Civics, Episode 98: The Judeo-Christian Tradition, Part 2    [ audio ]
How the Christian view of the individual influenced the Founders.

60-Second Civics, Episode 99: The Church in the Middle Ages    [ audio ]
How the church came to be a powerful force in the Middle Ages.

60-Second Civics. Episode 209: Virginia Declaration of Rights, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Virginia Declaration of Rights.

60-Second Civics: Episode 333, Impeachment    [ audio ]
A discussion of Article I of the Constitution: the power to impeach the president and other government officials.

Common Sense    [ audio ]
A discussion on Common Sense and its impact on the Revolutionary War by Alex Clark from Colonial Williamsburg podcast.

Leviathan    [ audio ]
The reading of Leviathan, or The Matter, Form, and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiastical and Civil, Book I and II. From Librivox.

Marbury v. Madison (1803)    [ video ]
Dramatization of Marbury v. Madison. First in the four-part Equal Justice under Law series. From the Judicial Conference of the United States. Hosted by Internet Archive. Length: 33 min, 41 sec. Various file sizes available.

Republic by Plato    [ audio ]
A reading of Plato's Republic by Learn Out Loud.

The Federalist    [ audio ]
Audio recordings of eighty-five essays, also known as the Federalist Papers, written between October 1787 and May 1788 by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. Various lengths and file sizes. From LibriVox.

Treatise of Friendship    [ audio ]
A reading of Cicero's Treatise of Friendship by Learn Out Loud podcast.

A New System of Government    [ video ]
In A New System of Government, video 5 of the Biography of America series, Professor Pauline Maier discusses the creation of the Constitution. Produced by WGBH Boston in cooperation with the Library of Congress and the National Archives and Records Administration, and with the assistance of Instructional Resources Corporation. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

Address at Union Dinner    [ audio ]
An audio recording of Franklin Roosevelt's State of the Union address. By the American Presidency Project.

AIM Takeover of Wounded Knee    [ audio ]
An audio recording about the American Indian Movement by the History Channel.

America Under Thomas Jefferson: Marbury versus Madison    [ video ]
A video on the Marbury v. Madison case. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 1 min., 19 sec.

America Under Thomas Jefferson: The Louisiana Purchase    [ video ]
A video that describes the Louisiana Purchase. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 1 min, 30 sec.

America under Thomas Jefferson: The Revolution of 1800    [ video ]
A video about the Revolution of 1800: the shift of executive control from the Federalists to the Republicans. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 1 min, 29 sec.

American Civic Democracy    [ video ]
A professor at Harvard University lectures about participation in voluntary association, presented by Teaching American Politics.

American Diversity: Equality For All Americans    [ video ]
A clip about the Jim Crow law, Rosa Park, and Martin Luther King Jr. by How Stuff Works Video Center.

American Diversity: Women's Suffrage Movement    [ video ]
A video about Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony by How Stuff Works Video Center.

American History Series: A "Great Compromise" on State Representation    [ audio ]
An audio description of the Great Compromise. From the Making of a Nation podcast by the Voice of America. For English language learners.

American History Series: In 1787, Debating the Need for Federal Courts    [ audio ]
An audio program discussing the debate about the need for a national judiciary at the Philadelphia Convention. From the Making of a Nation podcast by the Voice of America. For English language learners.

American History: Battle of Concord    [ video ]
A short video about the Battle of Concord (April 19, 1775). From HowStuffWorks. Length: 2 min, 34 sec.

American History: Battle of Lexington    [ video ]
A short video about the Battle of Lexington (April 19, 1775). From HowStuffWorks. Length: 4 min, 52 sec.

American History: European Influence    [ video ]
The influence of the Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment in shaping the development of America.

American History: Facts and Fiction of Boston Massacre    [ video ]
A video describing the Boston Massacre. Mentions the views of both sides and John Adams' role in the British soldiers' trial. Also discusses the qualities of good leaders. Briefly reviews the Proclamation Act (1763), the Stamp Act (1765), and the Tea Act (1773). Concludes with questions for discussion. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 5 min, 47 sec.

American History: Social Injustice and Northern Jobs    [ video ]
After the war, African American still suffered from social injustice by How Stuff Works Video Center.

American History: The Revolutionary War Begins    [ video ]
Britain's Coercive Acts, labeled by the colonists as the Intolerable Acts. At How Stuff Works.

American History: The Rise of Prohibition    [ video ]
A video describing the temperance movement, the Eighteenth Amendment, and organized crime. From the HowStuffWorks.

American RadioWorks presents Thurgood Marshall Before the Court    [ audio ]
A discussion about Thurgood Marshall and the Brown v. Board of Education ruling by Learn Out Loud.

American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson    [ audio ]
A lecture by historian Joseph J. Ellis on the political beliefs of Thomas Jefferson and their possible application to 21st century life. Downloadable audio. A Historians on the Record podcast from the Gilder Lehrman Institute. Length: 23 min, 14 sec.

Ancient Civilizations: Plato    [ video ]
A video about Plato and his idea of democracy by How Stuff Works Video Center.

Anthony Lewis on First Amendment    [ video ]
Anthony Lewis, author of Freedom for the Thought We Hate, discusses the First Amendment with host Francesca Rheannon. A podcast from the Writer's Voice radio program. Length: 27 min., 19 sec.

Anthony Lewis on the First Amendment    [ audio ]
Anthony Lewis, author of Freedom for the Thought We Hate, discusses the First Amendment with host Francesca Rheannon. A podcast from the Writer's Voice radio program. Length: 27 min., 19 sec.

Anti-Federalist Papers    [ audio ]
Readings of fifty-six Anti-Federalist papers. From LibriVox.

Articles of Confederation    [ audio ]
A reading of the Articles of Confederation. From the Founding Documents Podcast by Learn Out Loud. Size: 4.6 mb.

Barenblatt v. United States (1959)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Baseball Melting Pot    [ audio ]
Baseball is used to illustrate the American melting pot in this podcast from the National Constitution Center.

Board of Education of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens (1990)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Brown v. Board of Education Ruling    [ audio ]
An audio ruling of the case by The History Channel.

Bureaucracy: A Controversial Necessity    [ video ]
A video describing the American bureaucracy. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

Causes of War: Dred Scott    [ video ]
A dramatization of two Southerners discussing the Dred Scott case. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 1 min., 18 sec.

Causes Of War: The CSA    [ video ]
A video about the formation of the Confederate States of America. Includes arguments about the constitutional legitimacy of the CSA's secession. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 1 min., 49 sec.

Causes of War: The Kansas-Nebraska Act    [ video ]
A brief video about the Kansas Nebraska Act. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 44 sec.

Causes of War: The Three-Fifths Compromise    [ video ]
A video about the Three-Fifths Compromise. From HowStuffWorks.

Causes of War: The War Begins    [ video ]
A brief video about the start of the Civil War. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 58 sec.

Cesar Chavez    [ audio ]
Link to a selection of five speeches by Cesar Chavez. From the Union Farm Workers' website.

Checks and Balances    [ video ]
An explanation of checks and balances by Center on Congress.

Chinese Student Democracy Movement    [ video ]
A footage of a Chinese student confronting amored tanks in China from CNN Interative Video Almanac.

Citizenship: Making Government Work    [ video ]
A video about democracy and the importance of civic engagement. From the Democracy in America video series. Produced in 2003 by the Educational Film Center. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required. Length: 57 min., 48 sec.

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center (1985)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center (1985)    [ audio ]
The oral reargument of the case.

Civil Rights: Civil Disobedience    [ video ]
Martin Luther King stood for nonviolent protest by How Stuff Works Video Center.

Civil Rights: Demanding Equality    [ video ]
A video on political and social equality by Annenberg Media.

Civil Rights: Segregation in America    [ video ]
A video showing the treatment of African Americans by How Stuff Works Video Center.

Civil Rights: Segregation in America    [ video ]
A video about segregation. Defines de jure and de facto segregation. From the How Stuff Works Video Center. Length: 1 min, 45 sec.

Civil Rights: The Constitution    [ video ]
A short video about racial discrimination and the Constitution. Discusses the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, the "separate but equal" doctrine, and racial violence. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 1 min., 45 sec.

Close Up Videos: How Congress Works - An Insider's View    [ video ]
An inside look of the works of congress by Center on Congress.

Coker v. Georgia (1977)    [ audio ]
The oral argument from Oyez. Length: 59 mins.

Committee    [ video ]
An explanation of committee by Center On Congress.

Common Sense, Part 1, by Thomas Paine    [ audio ]
An audio recording of Common Sense, by Thomas Paine. Part 1 of 2. From FreeAudio.org. Size: 11 mb; Length: 66 min., 42 sec.

Common Sense, Part 2, by Thomas Paine    [ audio ]
An audio recording of Common Sense, by Thomas Paine. Part 2 of 2. From FreeAudio.org. Size: 14 mb; Length: 61 min., 28 sec.

Constitutional Convention    [ video ]
A video from the Encyclopedia Britannica that depicts the discussions at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. Length: 18 min., 46 sec.

Cooper Industries v. Leatherman Tool Group, Inc. (2001)    [ audio ]
The oral argument from Oyez. Length: 56 mins., 20 secs.

Crawford v. Marion County Election Board (2008)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Crime and Punishments    [ video ]
A debate about what constitutes cruel an unusual punishment. From Annenberg Media. Registration and log-in required.

Criminal Justice and a Defendant's Right to a Fair Trial    [ video ]
A video about rights to a fair trial by Annenberg Media.

Cruzan v. Director (1990)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Deliberation    [ video ]
An explanation of deliberation by Center On Congress.

Democratic Statecraft: Tocqueville, Democracy in America    [ audio ]
A lecture on Tocqueville's Democracy in America by Professor Steven B. Smith, recorded as part of Introduction to Political Philosophy, a class Smith taught at Yale University in the Fall of 2006. From Yale's Open Yale Courses website.

Dickerson v. United States.    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Diversity    [ video ]
A short video about the relationship between members of Congress and their constituencies. From the Center on Congress at Indiana University.

Dred Scott v. Sanford, 150 Years Later    [ audio ]
Theodore Shaw discusses the case and its lasting effect in the present times by Constitutional Conversations Podcast from Learn Out Loud.

Dunn v. Blumstein (1972)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Eleanor Roosevelt    [ video ]
Speech made by Eleanor Roosevelt from PBS American Experience.

Eleanor Roosevelt "Prospects of Mankind"    [ video ]
An interview of Eleanor Roosevelt and President Kennedy by PBS's American Experience.

Elections: The Maintenance of Democracy    [ video ]
A video on how citizens should become active in democracy by Annenberg Media.

Elrod v. Burns (1976)    [ audio ]
The opinion announcement of the case.

Exclusionary Rule I    [ audio ]
Part one of a series about the exclusionary rule. Discusses inevitable discovery and the independent source doctrines. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 4.1 mb. Length: 10 min., 2 sec.

Exclusionary Rule II    [ audio ]
Part two of a series about the exclusionary rule. Discusses inevitable discovery and the independent source doctrines. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 4.1 mb. Length: 10 min., 54 sec.

Execution of a Search Warrant I    [ audio ]
Part one of a series about the execution of search warrants. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 2.4 mb. Length: 10 min., 18 sec.

Execution of a Search Warrant II    [ audio ]
Part two of a series about the execution of search warrants. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 2.3 mb. Length: 10 min., 18 sec.

Executive Privilege and Delegation of Powers    [ video ]
Executive privilege video by Annenberg Media.

Federal Budget Allocation    [ video ]
An interactive animated presentation that introduces the concept of the federal budget. Students decide how to allocate a federal budget. Their allocations are compared to those of others. An interactive learning module from the Center on Congress at Indiana University. Page down to the bottom of the page and click on the "Federal Budget Allocation" icon.

Federalism    [ video ]
An explanation of federalism by Center on Congress.

Federalism    [ video ]
A video about the power of the federal government over state and local affairs. From the series The Constitution: That Delicate Balance. Produced in 1984 by Columbia University Seminars on Media and Society. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

Federalism: U.S. v. the States    [ video ]
A video about the tension between federal and state authority. From the Democracy in America video series. Produced in 2003 by the Educational Film Center. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

Federalist 68    [ audio ]
A reading of Federalist 68 by Learn Out Loud.

Federalist 70    [ audio ]
A reading of Federalist 70 by Learn Out Loud.

Federalist 78    [ audio ]
A reading of Federalist 78 by Michael Scherer. From Americana Phonic.

Federalist 84    [ audio ]
A reading of Federalist 84 by Michael Scherer. From Americana Phonic.

Federick Douglass    [ audio ]
A biography of his life and his speech for woman suffrage. From Learn Out Loud.

Filibuster    [ video ]
An explanation about filibusters by Center On Congress.

Fireside Chat    [ audio ]
Listen to audio recordings of FDR's fireside chats by the American Presidency Project.

Founding Fathers: Writing the Declaration of Independence    [ video ]
A short video describing the creation of the Declaration of Independence. Features historian Joseph Ellis. From the History Channel. Length: 3 min., 43 sec.

Free Speech Limitations    [ audio ]
A podcast explaining what briefly explaining the First Amendment and providing an example of when free expression can be limited by a private party. From the Legal Lad podcast, hosted by Michael Flynn. Links to the Legal Lad episode, where you can download the podcast or read a transcript. Contains advertising.

Furman v. Georgia (1972)    [ audio ]
The oral argument from Oyez. Length: 49 mins.

Gambling and Judicial Review: The Bill of Rights    [ video ]
A video discussing the justification for having three branches of government. From HowStuffWorks.

Gideon WainWright v. Florida (1963)    [ audio ]
The oral argument from Oyez. Length: 3 hrs., 4 min.

Global Politics: U.S.A. and the World    [ video ]
A video about America and foreign policy by Annenberg Media.

Global Politics: U.S.A. and the World    [ video ]
A video about America and the relationship with other nations by Annenberg Media.

Great American History Quiz: Emancipation Proclamation    [ video ]
A fun video quiz about the Emancipation Proclamation by the History Channel.

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)    [ audio ]
Part one of the oral argument of the case.

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)    [ audio ]
Part two of the oral argument of the case.

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)    [ audio ]
The opinion announcement of the case.

Hamilton Part 1    [ audio ]
Part 1 a fictional audio interview with Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson discusses Alexander Hamilton. From the Thomas Jefferson hour at jeffersonhour.org.

Hamilton Part 2    [ audio ]
Part 2 of a fictional audio interview with Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson discusses Alexander Hamilton. From the Thomas Jefferson Hour podcast at jeffersonhour.org.

Hardcover History: ''Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction"    [ audio ]
Eric Foner and Joshua Brown discuss about the Emancipation and its role in changing America by the History Channel.

Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1966)    [ audio ]
Part one of the oral argument of the case.

Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1966)    [ audio ]
Part two of the oral argument of the case.

History Of Rome    [ audio ]
An outline of Roman history. A podcast by Learn Out Loud.

History of the Peloponnesian War    [ audio ]
A reading of Thucydides's book by Learn Out Loud podcast.

Hobbes: Leviathan    [ audio ]
Nigel Warburton outlines Thomas Hobbes' central arguments from Leviathan in his reading of a selection from his book Philosophy: The Classics. From Learn Out Loud.

House of Representatives    [ video ]
A short video about the role of the House of Representatives. By the Center On Congress at Indiana University.

How a Bill Becomes Law    [ video ]
A video about passing Bills into law by Center on Congress.

How a Member Decides to Vote    [ video ]
Role of Congress video by Center on Congress.

Introduction to the Fourth Amendment    [ audio ]
An introduction to the Fourth Amendment with a focus on search and seizure. Discussion of reasonable expectation of privacy, among other topics. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 1.7 mb. Length: 7 min., 15 sec.

Journey Into American History Podcast by Dennis Humphrey    [ audio ]
A radio Dramatization of the Northwest Ordinance 1787 by Journey Through American History Podcast from Learn Out Loud.

Judicial Review: Constitutional Interpretation    [ video ]
Part three of the Judicial Review series. Focuses on the "original intent" versus the "living constitution" methods of constitutional interpretation. This is referred to on pages 180-182 of the We the People text as "original intent or original history" versus "modernism or instrumentalism." From HowStuffWorks. Length: 1 min., 55 sec.

Kelo v. New London, Connecticut (2005)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Kenneth Clark and Brown v. Board of Education (1982)    [ audio ]
A discussion about the Board of Education Topeka v. NAACP and Brown v. Board of Education case by Internet Archive.

Key Congressional Leader    [ video ]
A video about the key congressional leader by Center On Congress.

King John and Magna Carta    [ audio ]
King John and Magna Carta, an audio program from the British National Archives.

Kyllo v. United States (2001)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Kyllo v. United States (2001)    [ audio ]
The opinion announcement of the case.

Lawrence v. Texas (2003)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Legislatures: Laying Down the Law    [ video ]
A video showing how diversity affects the legislative process. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

Legislatures: Laying Down the Law    [ video ]
A video about the works of legislators by Annenberg Media.

Letter from Birmingham Jail    [ video ]
A reading of the letter by Baker College of Muskegon.

Lexington and Concord - 1775    [ audio ]
A 1948 radio dramatization of the Battles of Lexington and Concord. By CBS, from its You Are There! radio show. Length: 30 min., 25 sec.

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation    [ audio ]
Allen Guelzo lectures on Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation by Gilder Lehrman Institution podcast.

Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power    [ audio ]
Richard Cowardine lectures on the life of Abraham Lincoln by Gilder Lehrman Institute podcast.

Lobbying    [ video ]
An explanation about lobbying by Center on Congress.

Louisiana v. Mississippi (1995)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Loving v. Virginia (1967)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Mapp v. Ohio (1961)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Marbury v. Madison (1803)    [ video ]
Dramatization of Marbury v. Madison.

May 17, 1954: Brown v. Board of Education Is Decided    [ video ]
Another video of the case by the History Channel.

Mayflower Compact    [ audio ]
A reading of the Mayflower Compact by Internet Archive.

Medieval Times: Serfs    [ video ]
A video describing the lives of serfs during the Middle Ages. From HowStuffWorks.

Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson (1986)    [ audio ]
A link to the an audio file of the oral argument of the case.

Miranda and the 5th Amendment    [ audio ]
An explanation of the Miranda rule and the Fifth Amendment. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 6.2 mb. Length: 13 min., 36 sec.

Miranda Waivers and Invocation    [ audio ]
An explanation of Miranda waivers and invocation. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 6.5 mb. Length: 13 min., 52 sec.

New World Colonized: Jamestown Colony    [ video ]
The Virgina Company of London; early settlement life. At How Stuff Works.

Not For Ourselves Alone    [ video ]
Women suffrage movement video from the Journal for MultiMedia History.

Notable Members of Congress    [ video ]
Role of Congress by Center On Congress.

On the Duty of Civil Disobedience by Thoreau, Henry David    [ audio ]
A reading of the book by Librivox Recording.

Our Constitution: A Conversation    [ video ]
In this video, Supreme Court justices Sandra Day O'Connor and Stephen Breyer discuss the importance of the Constitution and explain several basic principles of American constitutionalism. They answer student questions about separation of powers, the Court's modern relevance, federalism, liberty versus security, notable cases, decision-making in the Court. The link takes you to Annenberg's Sunnylands Classroom website, were the film can be watched in numerous file sizes, and where visitors can watch the film in numerous languages or read a transcript. Filmed in 2005. Length: 29 min., 7 sec.

Our Constitution: A Conversation    [ video ]
In this video, Supreme Court justices Sandra Day O'Connor and Stephen Breyer discuss the importance of the Constitution and explain several basic principles of American constitutionalism. They answer student questions about separation of powers, the Court's modern relevance, federalism, liberty versus security, notable cases, decision-making in the Court. The link takes you to Annenberg's Sunnylands Classroom website, were the film can be watched in numerous file sizes, and where visitors can watch the film in numerous languages or read a transcript. Filmed in 2005. Length: 29 min., 7 sec.

Our Constitution: A Conversation    [ video ]
In this video, Supreme Court justices Sandra Day O'Connor and Stephen Breyer discuss the importance of the Constitution and explain several basic principles of American constitutionalism. They answer student questions about separation of powers, the Court's modern relevance, federalism, liberty versus security, notable cases, and decision-making in the Court, among other topics. The link takes you to Annenberg's Sunnylands Classroom website, were the film can be watched in numerous file sizes, and where visitors can watch the film in numerous languages or read a transcript. Filmed in 2005. Length: 29 min., 7 sec.

Overview of We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution    [ video ]
See how We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution can help young people become engaged and responsible citizens. Watch high school students explain their detailed knowledge of the Constitution and Bill of Rights during simulated congressional hearings at the We the People national finals.

Passage of 26th Amendment    [ audio ]
Discussion about allowing 18 year olds to vote by the History Channel.

Patterson v. McLean Credit Union (1989)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Patterson v. McLean Credit Union (1989)    [ audio ]
The oral reargument of the case.

Plyler v. Doe (1982)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Plyler v. Doe (1982)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Political Parties: Mobilizing Agents    [ video ]
Political Parties: Mobilizing Agents is the twelfth video of the Democracy in America series. Describes the role of political parties in the American political system. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Produced by the Educational Film Center in 2003. Registration and log-in required. Length: 28 min., 28 sec.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act    [ video ]
A video about discrimination against pregnant by MSNBC news.

Presidents: Grover Cleveland - First Term    [ video ]
A video about President Cleveland by the History Channel.

Presidents: Grover Cleveland - Second Term    [ video ]
A video about President Cleveland by the History Channel.

Presidents: James Garfield    [ video ]
A video about President Garfield and his assassination by the History Channel.

Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Probable Cause I    [ audio ]
Part one of a series about probable cause. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 2.0 mb. Length: 8 min., 49 sec.

Probable Cause II    [ audio ]
Part two of a series about probable cause. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 1.9 mb. Length: 8 min., 7 sec.

Protestant Reformation    [ audio ]
A History Podcast discussing the Reformation. From Learn Out Loud. Size: 6.9 mb.

Public Criticisms of Congress    [ video ]
Role of Congress by Center on Congress.

Public Opinion: Voice of the People    [ video ]
A video about public opinion and the role it has on government policy. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

Radio Address Summarizing the State of the Union Message    [ video ]
A video summary of the Address made by FDR by the American Presidency Project.

Rapanos v. United States (2006)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Rapanos v. United States (2006)    [ audio ]
The opinion announcement of the case.

Reagan and Foreign Policy    [ video ]
A CSPAN video of a discussion about foreign policy during President Ronald Reagan's administration. Filmed at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Length: 1 hr., 23 min.

Reasonable Expectation of Privacy I    [ audio ]
Part one of a series about the reasonable expectation of privacy under the Fourth Amendment. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 2.1 mb. Length: 9 min., 4 sec.

Reasonable Expectation of Privacy II    [ audio ]
Part two of a series about the reasonable expectation of privacy under the Fourth Amendment. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 2.1 mb. Length: 9 min., 1 sec.

Reconstruction    [ video ]
A segment on African American Suffrage by PBS.

Renaissance    [ audio ]
A lecture by Thomas W. Laqueur on the Renaissance. A webcast of his lecture at the University of California, Berkeley.

Representation    [ video ]
A video showing how Congress represents the people by the Center On Congress.

Revolution: Warships and the Seven Years' War    [ video ]
A video describing the importance of naval power during the Seven Years' war (1756-1763). From HowStuffWorks. Length: 4 min., 16 sec.

Revolutionary Perspectives    [ video ]
Revolutionary Perspectives is a video hosted by Annenberg Media that discusses how the ideas of the Enlightenment influenced Americans and their desire for freedom. From the video series America's History in the Making. Registration and sign-in is required. Length: 28 min, 25 sec.

Reynolds v. Sims (1964)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Reynolds v. Sims (1964)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Robinson v. California (1962)    [ audio ]
The oral argument from Oyez. Length: 1 hr., 26 mins.

Romer v. Evans (1996)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Romer v. Evans (1996)    [ audio ]
The oral reargument of the case.

Ronald Reagan    [ video ]
Watch and listen to Reagan's Presidency by the American Presidency Project.

Roper v. Simmons (2004)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Roper v. Simmons (2005)    [ audio ]
The oral argument from Oyez. Length: 56 mins.

Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois (1990)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Sailing of the Mayflower    [ audio ]
A radio dramatization of the voyage of the Mayflower at You Are There! Podcast.

School Prayer, Gun Control, and the Right To Assemble    [ video ]
A video describing the right to assemble by Annenberg Media.

Search Warrants    [ audio ]
An explanation of the requirement for search warrants under the Fourth Amendment. From the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of Homeland Security. Links to the DHS website. Size: 2.0 mb. Length: 8 min., 49 sec.

Senate    [ video ]
A short video about the role of Senate. From the Center on Congress at Indiana University.

Shaping the New Nation: The Articles of Confederation.    [ video ]
A video about the the Articles of Confederation. From the HowStuffWorks.

Shaping the New Nation: The Constitutional Convention    [ video ]
A video about the Constitutional Convention. From HowStuffWorks.

Shapiro v. Thompson (1969)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Shapiro v. Thompson (1969)    [ audio ]
The oral reargument of the case.

Show 678 - Missouri Compromise    [ audio ]
A discussion about the Missouri Compromise by Thomas Jefferson Hour Podcast from Learn Out Loud.

Slavery    [ video ]
A video about slavery and its role in the succession of the union by Annenberg Media.

South Carolina v. Katzenbach (1966)    [ audio ]
Part one of the oral argument of the case.

South Carolina v. Katzenbach (1966)    [ audio ]
Part two of the oral argument of the case.

South Dakota v. Dole (1987)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Southern School Desegregation    [ video ]
Clips of the desegregation of Central High from PBS American Experience.

Statement on Signing the Social Security Act    [ video ]
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Social Security Act by the American Presidency Project.

Susan B Anthony    [ audio ]
A speech by Susan B Anthony on suffrage rights presented by Learn Out Loud.

T.L.O. v. New Jersey (1984)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Tennessee v. Lane (2006)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Tennessee v. Lane (2006)    [ audio ]
The opinion announcement of the case.

The American Revolution: The Bill Of Rights    [ video ]
A brief summary of some of the amendment rights by How Stuff Works Video Center.

The Amistad Case    [ video ]
In this 2002 video produced by the WGBH Educational Foundation, eighth-grade teacher Gary Fisher leads his class in a discussion of the Amistad case. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Login is required. Streaming video. Length: 26 min 48 sec.

The British Constitution    [ audio ]
A discussion about the influence of the British Constitution on the American Constitution. From the Colonial Williamsburg podcast at History.org.

The Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. Hialeah (1993)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964    [ video ]
Civil Rights Act video by PBS American Experience.

The Civil War    [ video ]
Civil War video by Annenberg Media.

The Coming of the Civil War    [ video ]
A video portraying the events that led to the Civil War by Annenberg Media.

The Constitution: Fixed or Flexible?    [ video ]
A video describing constitutional interpretation and the debate between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison over how and whether the Constitution should be amended. From the Democracy in America series. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Produced by the Educational Film Center in 2003. Registration and log-in required. Length: 28 min., 30 sec.

The Constitution: Fixed or Flexible?    [ video ]
A video that examines whether the Constitution should be interpreted to meet the changing needs of the country. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

The Courts: Our Rule of Law    [ video ]
The Courts: Our Rule of Law is the fifth video of the Democracy in America series. Describes the state and federal court systems. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Produced by the Educational Film Center in 2003. Registration and log-in required. Length: 28 min., 26 sec.

The Courts: Our Rule of Law    [ video ]
A video about the role of courts in the American system of government. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

The Declaration of Independence    [ audio ]
A reading of the Declaration of Independence. From Learn Out Loud. Size: 2.2 mb.

The Dynamic Legislative Process    [ video ]
An interactive video about the legislative process by Center On Congress.

The Election Process: The Electoral College    [ video ]
A video about the Electoral College and how a president is elected. From HowStuffWorks.

The Establishment Clause    [ audio ]
An audio podcast about the Establishment Clause by Legal Lad.

The Fifth Virginia Convention    [ video ]
A discussion about the Virginia Declaration of Rights and its contribution to the Bill of Rights and American Constitution. From the Colonial Williamsburg podcast at History.org.

The Fifth Virginia Convention    [ audio ]
A discussion about the Virginia Declaration of Rights and its contribution to the Bill of Rights and American Constitution. By the Colonial Williamsburg podcast.

The Impact of Congress    [ video ]
Role of Congress by Center on Congress.

The Importance of Civic Participation    [ video ]
Role of Congress by Center On Congress.

The Legacy of 1808: The Emancipation Proclamation Defined    [ audio ]
Scholars Harold Holzer and Robert F. Engs present the iconic perspective of the Emancipation Proclamation by Constitutional Conversations Podcast from Learn Out Loud.

The life of George Washington    [ video ]
At Archiving Early America.

The Magna Carta    [ audio ]
A reading of the text of the Magna Carta. From LibriVox. Size: 13.7 mb.

The Many Roles of a Member of Congress    [ video ]
Role of Congress by Center On Congress.

The Mexican War: Consequences    [ video ]
A video on the Mexican War in 1846-1848 by How Stuff Works Video Center.

The Mexican War: Manifest Destiny and War    [ video ]
A video about the Mexican War and Texas by How Stuff Works Video Center.

The Mexican War: The Conquest of California    [ video ]
A video about how America possessed California by How Stuff Works Video Center.

The Modern Presidency: Tools of Power    [ video ]
The expansion of executive powers through the years by Annenberg Media

The New Nation    [ video ]
The New Nation, a segment from the America's History in the Making video course, describes how America was shaped by the Revolutionary War. Produced by Oregon Public Broadcasting. Registration and log-in required. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Length: 28 min., 25 sec.

The Presidents: Jefferson    [ video ]
A video about Thomas Jefferson's presidency. From the History Channel.

The Presidents: Jefferson's Presidency    [ video ]
Louisiana Purchase video by the History Channel.

The Presidents: Teddy Roosevelt    [ video ]
A video about Teddy Roosevelt's presidency by the History Channel.

The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli    [ audio ]
A reading of the book by Learn Out Loud podcast.

The Progressive Era: Suffrage    [ video ]
A video about women's struggle for the right to vote. From HowStuffWorks. Length: 2 min., 49 sec.

The Progressive Era: Suffrage    [ video ]
A video about the Nineteenth Amendment by How Stuff Works Video Center.

The Ratification of the U.S. Constitution    [ audio ]
A radio dramatization of the ratification of the Constitution. From the You Are There!, a CBS radio show from the 1940s and 50s.

The Right to Assemble    [ audio ]
A description of the right of assembly by Legal Lad.

The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow    [ audio ]
Real stories by real people who testified about their experience with the Jim Crow Law by Learn Out Loud.

The Role of a Supreme Court Justice    [ audio ]
An audio discussion of the qualifications required to fill the role of a Supreme Court Justice. From KQED's Forum radio show. Recorded November 4, 2005.

The Signing of the Magna Carta    [ audio ]
A radio dramatization of the signing of the Magna Carta from You Are There! Podcast.

The Stamp Act    [ audio ]
A discussion about the Stamp Act. From Colonial Williamsburg.

The Stamp Act Revolt at Williamsburg    [ audio ]
A dramatization of the Stamp Act revolt by You Are There! Podcast.

The U.S Constitution: The Constitutional Convention    [ video ]
A video about the Constitutional Convention. From HowStuffWorks.

The U.S. Constitution    [ audio ]
A reading of the U.S. Constitution by Learn Out Loud from its Founding Documents Podcast.

The U.S. Constitution: Amending The Constitution    [ video ]
A video describing the process for amending the Constitution, as described by Article V. From HowStuffWorks.

Thirteen Colonies: The Glorious Revolution    [ video ]
Glorious Revolution of 1688 and English Bill of Rights video by How Stuff Works Video Center.

Thomas Jefferson's Inaugural Address    [ audio ]
A dramatization of Thomas Jefferson's inaugural address. From the Thomas Jefferson Hour podcast at jeffersonhour.org.

Three Branch of Government    [ video ]
An explanation about the three branches of government by Center on Congress.

Tocqueville Tour    [ video ]
A discussion about Toqueville's Democracy in America.

Trops v. Dulles (1958)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

Uncertainty    [ video ]
A video about Andrew Johnson taking office after Lincoln's assassination by PBS American Experience Program.

Unit 1 Overview: We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution Level 3 Text    [ audio ]
Scholars Margaret Branson, Sue Leeson, and Scott Casper present Unit 1 of the new We the People student text. Size: 2.4 mb. Length: 2 min, 35 sec.

Unit 2 Overview: We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution Level 3 Text    [ audio ]
Scholars Margaret Branson, Sue Leeson, and Scott Casper present Unit 2 of the new We the People student text. Size: 5.1 mb. Length: 5 min, 34 sec.

Unit 3 Overview: We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution Level 3 Text    [ audio ]
Scholars Margaret Branson, Sue Leeson, and Scott Casper present Unit 3 of the new We the People student text. Size: 5.8 mb. Length: 6 min, 18 sec.

Unit 4 Overview: We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution Level 3 Text    [ audio ]
Scholars Margaret Branson, Sue Leeson, and Scott Casper present Unit 4 of the new We the People student text. Size: 6.3 mb. Length: 6 min, 50 sec.

Unit 5 Overview: We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution Level 3 Text    [ audio ]
Scholars Margaret Branson, Sue Leeson, and Scott Casper present Unit 5 of the new We the People student text. Size: 3.1 mb. Length: 3 min, 24 sec.

Unit 6 Overview: We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution Level 3 Text    [ audio ]
Scholars Margaret Branson, Sue Leeson, and Scott Casper present Unit 6 of the new We the People student text. Size: 17.9 mb. Length: 19 min, 32 sec.

United States v. Lopez (1995)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

United States v. Lopez (1995)    [ audio ]
The opinion announcement of United States v. Lopez (1995) from Oyez.org. Length: 5 min., 39 sec.

United States v. Miller (1985)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

United States v. Virginia Military Academy (1996)    [ audio ]
The oral argument of the case.

United States v. Virginia Military Academy (1996)    [ audio ]
The opinion announcement of the case.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights    [ video ]
A United Nations webcast of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Streaming video. 3 min, 29 sec.

Virginia Ratifies the Constitution - 1788    [ audio ]
A radio dramatization of Virginia's ratification of the Constitution. From You Are There!, a CBS radio show from the 1940s and 50s. File size: 28.5 mb.

Voting Rights Act of 1965    [ audio ]
A podcast discussing the development of voting rights by Georgetown Law podcast from Learn Out Loud.

War Powers and Covert Action    [ video ]
In War Powers and Covert Action, video 2 of the The Constitution: The Delicate Balance video series, Gerald Ford, Bobby Inman and Edmund Muskie debate presidential war powers. Produced by Columbia University Seminars on Media and Society. From Annenberg Media's Lerner.org website. Registration and log-in required. Length: 57 min., 15 sec.

War Powers and Covert Action    [ video ]
A video about the President's power with military by Annenberg Media.

We the People: the Citizen and the Constitution High School Hearing    [ video ]
After months of in-depth study, research, and preparation, We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution students display their knowledge of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights in the program's culminating activity: a simulated congressional hearing. Students serve as expert witnesses on the country's founding principles and constitutional law and answer follow-up questions from a panel of judges. Watch this hearing from the We the People national finals in Washington, D.C., which draws the top classes from high school competitions in each state and the District of Columbia.

What Does Congress Do?    [ video ]
Discussion about the role of Congress. From the Center on Congress at Indiana University.

Why Does Congress matter?    [ video ]
Discussion about the importance of Congress. From the Center on Congress at Indiana University.

Woodrow Wilson    [ video ]
A video about the presidency of Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt by American President Life Portrait.

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