We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution, Level 3
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Unit 2 Media

60-Second Civics, Episode 336: Concerns About State Governments    [ audio ]
Concerns about the power of state governments.

"The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin," a lecture by Gordon Wood    [ audio ]
Gordon Wood, the author of "The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin" discusses Franklin's life in this podcast from the Gilder Lehrman Institute.

60-Second Civics, Episode 214: Articles of Confederation, Part 1    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 215: Articles of Confederation, Part 2    [ audio ]
The roles of Benjamin Franklin and Richard Henry Lee in bringing about the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 216: Articles of Confederation, Part 3    [ audio ]
The colonists' fear of a strong government and how it affected the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 217: Articles of Confederation, Part 4    [ audio ]
How the Continental Congress avoided a strong central government when they adopted the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 218: Articles of Confederation, Part 5    [ audio ]
How the Articles of Confederation created a ???firm league of friendship" among the states instead of a strong central government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 219: Articles of Confederation, Part 6    [ audio ]
The powers kept by the states under the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 220: Articles of Confederation, Part 7    [ audio ]
Three issues that aligned groups of states against one another.

60-Second Civics, Episode 221: Articles of Confederation, Part 8    [ audio ]
The solutions to states' concerns about the national government's power that paved the way for adopting the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 259: Achievements of the Articles of Confederation, Pa    [ audio ]
An examination of the achievements of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 260: Achievements of the Articles of Confederation, Pa    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Northwest Ordinance.

60-Second Civics, Episode 261: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
A discussion about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 262: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
How the national government was unable to protect loyalists from the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 263: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
Localists versus cosmopolitans in post-Revolutionary America.

60-Second Civics, Episode 264: Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, Part    [ audio ]
Majority tyranny in post-Revolutionary America.

60-Second Civics, Episode 265: Attempts to Reform the Articles of Confederation,    [ audio ]
A discussion about attempts to solve the problems of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 266: Attempts to Reform the Articles of Confederation,    [ audio ]
A discussion about demands for a constitutional convention caused by the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 267: Attempts to Reform the Articles of Confederation,    [ audio ]
The failure of the Annapolis convention and calls for a new convention to amend the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 268: Shays' Rebellion, Part 1    [ audio ]
A discussion about Shays' Rebellion.

60-Second Civics, Episode 269: Shays' Rebellion, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of Shays' Rebellion.

60-Second Civics, Episode 270: Shays' Rebellion, Part 3    [ audio ]
The conclusion to a discussion of Shays' Rebellion.

60-Second Civics, Episode 271: Philadelphia Convention, Part 1: Overview    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 272: Philadelphia Convention, Part 2: The Framers    [ audio ]
A discussion about the Framers of the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 273: Philadelphia Convention, Part 3: Demographics of    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Framers of the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 274: Philadelphia Convention, Part 4: Max Farrand on t    [ audio ]
A discussion on Max Farrand's statement about the Framers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 275: Philadelphia Convention, Part 5: George Washingto    [ audio ]
George Washington and the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 276: Philadelphia Convention, Part 6: James Madison's    [ audio ]
James Madison's role in the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 277: Philadelphia Convention, Part 7: Franklin, Hamilt    [ audio ]
Benjamin Franklin's, Alexander Hamilton's, and James Wilson's participation in the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 278: Philadelphia Convention, Part 8: Morris, Randolph    [ audio ]
Gouverneur Morris, Edmund Randolph, and Roger Sherman, and their roles at the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 279: Philadelphia Convention, Part 9: Missing Founders    [ audio ]
A discussion of some of the important Founders who did not attend the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 280: Philadelphia Convention, Part 10: Rhode Island    [ audio ]
Why Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 281: Philadelphia Convention, Part 11: Rules of Debate    [ audio ]
A discussion of three of the rules adopted for the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 282: Philadelphia Convention, Part 12: Rules of Debate    [ audio ]
A discussion of four key rules of the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 283: Philadelphia Convention, Part 13: Civil Discourse    [ audio ]
The importance of civil discourse during the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 284: Philadelphia Convention, Part 14: Secrecy    [ audio ]
Why the Framers wanted to keep the proceedings of the Philadelphia Convention secret.

60-Second Civics, Episode 285: Philadelphia Convention, Part 15: Committees    [ audio ]
The four key committees of the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 286: Philadelphia Convention, Part 16: Madison and the    [ audio ]
James Madison's proposal for government: the Virginia Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 287: Philadelphia Convention, Part 17: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The strength of the national government under the Virginia Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 288: Philadelphia Convention, Part 18: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The Virginia Plan and federalism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 289: Philadelphia Convention, Part 19: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The national legislature under the Virgina Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 290: Philadelphia Convention, Part 20: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The powers of Congress under the Virginia Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 291: Philadelphia Convention, Part 21: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The Virginia Plan's proposal to create a two-house Congress.

60-Second Civics, Episode 292: Philadelphia Convention, Part 22: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
A discussion on disagreements about representation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 293: Philadelphia Convention, Part 23: Virginia Plan    [ audio ]
The preference of some delegates at the Philadelphia Convention for equal representation of the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 294: Philadelphia Convention, Part 24: Crisis Over Rep    [ audio ]
The crisis over representation at the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 295: Philadelphia Convention, Part 25: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the New Jersey Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 296: Philadelphia Convention, Part 26: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
The powers of Congress under the New Jersey Plan.

60-Second Civics, Episode 297: Philadelphia Convention, Part 27: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
How the New Jersey Plan was meant to reform the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 298: Philadelphia Convention, Part 28: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
How the rejection of the New Jersey Plan threatened the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 299: Philadelphia Convention, Part 29: New Jersey Plan    [ audio ]
The delegates' plan to save the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 300: Philadelphia Convention, Part 30: Great Compromis    [ audio ]
The first steps taken toward the Great Compromise at the Philadelphia Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 301: Philadelphia Convention, Part 31: Great Compromis    [ audio ]
The gains and losses on both sides in the Great Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 302: Philadelphia Convention, Part 32: Great Compromis    [ audio ]
Opposition to the Great Compromise led to a crisis at the Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 303: Philadelphia Convention, Part 33: Madison and the    [ audio ]
James Madison's opposition to the Great Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 304: Philadelphia Convention, Part 34: Introduction to    [ audio ]
The debate that led to the Three-Fifths Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 305: Philadelphia Convention, Part 35: Three-Fifths Co    [ audio ]
The Southern position in the debate over proportional representation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 306: Philadelphia Convention, Part 36: Three-Fifths Co    [ audio ]
The Northern position in the debate over proportional representation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 307: Philadelphia Convention, Part 37: Three-Fifths Co    [ audio ]
The conclusion to an examination of the Three-Fifths Compromise.

60-Second Civics, Episode 308: Philadelphia Convention, Part 38: Balance of Powe    [ audio ]
The delegates address the representation of new states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 309: Philadelphia Convention, Part 39: New States and    [ audio ]
The delegates address the admission of new states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 310: Introduction to the Three Branches of Government    [ audio ]
An introduction of the three branches of the U.S. government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 311: The Framers and the Balance of Power    [ audio ]
What were the delegates' thoughts on the balance of power?

60-Second Civics, Episode 312: Problems with a Weak Executive    [ audio ]
Colonial Americans preferred a weak executive, but at what cost?

60-Second Civics, Episode 313: Congress as a Deliberative Body    [ audio ]
How the powers of Congress were organized by the delegates.

60-Second Civics, Episode 314: Powers of Congress    [ audio ]
Today, we examine the two categories of congressional power.

60-Second Civics, Episode 315: Executive Power    [ audio ]
The Framers' deliberations over the power of the executive branch.

60-Second Civics, Episode 316: Executive Balance    [ audio ]
The balance sought by Congress between an energetic executive and limited government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 317: Philadelphia Convention: A Singular Executive    [ audio ]
A discussion of a singular, as opposed to a plural, executive.

60-Second Civics, Episode 319: Reelection of the President    [ audio ]
The Framers' decision on whether the president should be eligible for reelection.

60-Second Civics, Episode 320: Opposition to Direct Election of the President    [ audio ]
How should the president be selected?

60-Second Civics, Episode 321: Arguments For Direct Election of the President    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Framers' debate over direct election of the president.

60-Second Civics, Episode 322: Indirect Election of the President    [ audio ]
Philadelphia Convention delegates' consideration of indirect election of the president.

60-Second Civics, Episode 323: Considering Presidential Selection    [ audio ]
A discussion of the idea of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 324: Features of the Electoral College, Part 1    [ audio ]
A discussion of features of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 325: Features of the Electoral College, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion on features of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 326: Problems with the Electoral College    [ audio ]
The conclusion of a discussion of the Electoral College.

60-Second Civics, Episode 327: Origins of the Federal Judiciary    [ audio ]
How the judiciary branch completed the system of separation of powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 328: The Federal Judiciary    [ audio ]
The Framers' decisions about the powers of the Supreme Court.

60-Second Civics, Episode 329: Shared Powers    [ audio ]
How powers are shared among the branches of government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 330: Checks and Balances    [ audio ]
The system of separated and shared powers known as "checks and balances."

60-Second Civics, Episode 331: Appointments and Treaties    [ audio ]
A look at the power to make appointments and negotiate treaties.

60-Second Civics, Episode 332: The Power to Declare and Wage War    [ audio ]
A discussion of the shared power to wage and declare war.

60-Second Civics, Episode 334: Judicial Review    [ audio ]
A discussion of judicial review.

60-Second Civics, Episode 335: National and State Powers    [ audio ]
The relationship between national and state powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 337: Powers of the National Government, Part 1    [ audio ]
Powers of the national government over the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 338: Powers of the National Government, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the powers of the national government over the states.

60-Second Civics, Episode 339: Limitations on the National Government    [ audio ]
Limits on the power of the national government.

60-Second Civics, Episode 340: Habeas Corpus    [ audio ]
Habeas corpus and other protections of individual rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 341: Ex Post Facto Laws and Bills of Attainder    [ audio ]
A discussion of ex post facto laws and bills of attainder.

60-Second Civics, Episode 342: Political Independence of Public Officials    [ audio ]
The constitutional provisions for the political independence of public officials.

60-Second Civics, Episode 343: More Protections of Political Independence    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the political independence of public officials.

60-Second Civics, Episode 344: Limits on State Powers    [ audio ]
Constitutional limits on the power of state governments.

60-Second Civics, Episode 345: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 1    [ audio ]
How slavery affected state and national powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 346: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 2    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of how slavery affected state and national powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 347: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 3    [ audio ]
More continued discussion of how slavery affected state and national powers.

60-Second Civics, Episode 348: Slavery and the Constitution, Part 4    [ audio ]
The conclusion to a discussion of slavery and the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 349: Issues Unaddressed by the Constitutional Conventi    [ audio ]
Some issues that were not addressed at the Constitutional Convention.

60-Second Civics, Episode 350: The Constitution and Voting Rights    [ audio ]
A discussion on the Constitution and voting rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 351: Representation in the House of Representatives    [ audio ]
The Framer's debates over suffrage in Congress.

60-Second Civics, Episode 352: National Versus State Power    [ audio ]
A discussion of conflicts between state and national power.

60-Second Civics, Episode 353: Secession    [ audio ]
A discussion on the issue of secession.

60-Second Civics, Episode 354: Ratification    [ audio ]
The beginning of an examination of the ratification of the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 355: Problems With Amending the Articles of Confederat    [ audio ]
The problems with amending the Articles of Confederation.

60-Second Civics, Episode 356: Ratification: Approval by the People    [ audio ]
James Madison's plan for ratification.

60-Second Civics, Episode 357: Ratification and Social Contract Theory    [ audio ]
How the plan to ratify the Constitution was consistent with natural rights philosophy.

60-Second Civics, Episode 358: Opposition to Ratification    [ audio ]
The beginning of a discussion of the debates over the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 359: The Anti-Federalists    [ audio ]
An introduction to the Anti-Federalists.

60-Second Civics, Episode 360: Anti-Federalists    [ audio ]
A discussion of leading Anti-Federalists.

60-Second Civics, Episode 361: Ratification and Reasoned Discourse    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the ratification debates.

60-Second Civics, Episode 362: Anti-Federalist Principles    [ audio ]
Key elements of the Anti-Federalists' opposition to the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 363: Anti-Federalist Fears of Distant Government    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalists' beliefs about governance over great distances.

60-Second Civics, Episode 364: Anti-Federalists on Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
A look at the Anti-Federalist beliefs about civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 365: Anti-Federalist Fears    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalist opinions about the dangers of the government proposed by the new Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 366: Anti-Federalist Concerns about Congress    [ audio ]
Specific Anti-Federalist arguments against the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 367: Anti-Federalist Fears About the Executive Branch    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalist concerns about the power of the president.

60-Second Civics, Episode 368: Anti-Federalist Concerns about the National Judic    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalist concerns about the national judiciary.

60-Second Civics, Episode 369: Anti-Federalists and Checks and Balances    [ audio ]
The Anti-Federalist problem with the system of checks and balances.

60-Second Civics, Episode 370: Anti-Federalists and Checks and Balances    [ audio ]
Further examination of the system of checks and balances.

60-Second Civics, Episode 371: Domination by an Elite    [ audio ]
Further examination of the fears of the Anti-Federalists.

60-Second Civics, Episode 372: Anti-Federalists and the Bill of Rights    [ audio ]
The Philadelphia Convention delegates' greatest tactical error.

60-Second Civics, Episode 373: Anti-Federalists Argue for a Bill of Rights    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalists' concern of a "distant" national government and the need for a bill of rights.

60-Second Civics, Episode 374: Anti-Federalist Worries about Individual Freedoms    [ audio ]
Why the Anti-Federalists were concerned about the lack of a bill of rights in the Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 375: More Anti-Federalist Objections to the Constituti    [ audio ]
Why the Anti-Federalists were concerned about the broad powers of the government under the proposed Constitution.

60-Second Civics, Episode 376: Anti-Federalists and Republican Principles    [ audio ]
Anti-Federalists wanted to remind the people of the principles of our political system.

60-Second Civics, Episode 377, The Federalists organize quickly    [ audio ]
The Federalists organize quickly to counter their opponents.

60-Second Civics, Episode 378: The Federalists and the Ratification Debates    [ audio ]
Three men--Hamilton, Madison, and Jay--publish essays in support of ratification.

60-Second Civics, Episode 379: The Federalist and the "New Science of Politics"    [ audio ]
The Federalist and the "new science of politics."

60-Second Civics, Episode 380: The Central Problem of Republican Government    [ audio ]
The Federalist response to Anti-Federalist fears of a large republic.

60-Second Civics, Episode 381: Federalist 10: Part 1    [ audio ]
Madison's solution to the problem of a republican government over a large geographic region.

60-Second Civics, Episode 382: Federalist 10: Part 2    [ audio ]
Madison's views on the dangers of faction.

60-Second Civics, Episode 383: Federalist 10: Part 3    [ audio ]
Majority tyranny defined by James Madison.

60-Second Civics, Episode 384: Federalist 10: Part 4    [ audio ]
Madison's views on the benefits of a large, diverse republic.

60-Second Civics, Episode 385: Federalist Arguments about Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
We begin an examination of the Federalists' views on civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 386: Federalist Mistrust of Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
Continued discussion of the Federalists and civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 387: The Constitution Does Not Rely on Civic Virtue    [ audio ]
The Federalist claim that the national government created by the Constitution did not rely on civic virtue.

60-Second Civics, Episode 388: The Constitution Protects the Common Good    [ audio ]
A discussion of the Federalist claims about how the Constitution promotes the goals of republicanism.

60-Second Civics, Episode 389: The Constitution: Not Too Complicated    [ audio ]
James Madison's rebuttal to the claim that the Constitution was too complicated to be effective.

60-Second Civics, Episode 3: George Washington and Ratification of the Constitut    [ audio ]
George Washington's role during the Constitutional Convention and the debates over ratification.

60-Second Civics: Episode 333, Impeachment    [ audio ]
A discussion of Article I of the Constitution: the power to impeach the president and other government officials.

The Federalist    [ audio ]
Audio recordings of eighty-five essays, also known as the Federalist Papers, written between October 1787 and May 1788 by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. Various lengths and file sizes. From LibriVox.

A New System of Government    [ video ]
In A New System of Government, video 5 of the Biography of America series, Professor Pauline Maier discusses the creation of the Constitution. Produced by WGBH Boston in cooperation with the Library of Congress and the National Archives and Records Administration, and with the assistance of Instructional Resources Corporation. From Annenberg Media's Learner.org website. Registration and log-in required.

American History Series: A "Great Compromise" on State Representation    [ audio ]
An audio description of the Great Compromise. From the Making of a Nation podcast by the Voice of America. For English language learners.

American History Series: In 1787, Debating the Need for Federal Courts    [ audio ]
An audio program discussing the debate about the need for a national judiciary at the Philadelphia Convention. From the Making of a Nation podcast by the Voice of America. For English language learners.

Anti-Federalist Papers    [ audio ]
Readings of fifty-six Anti-Federalist papers. From LibriVox.

Articles of Confederation    [ audio ]
A reading of the Articles of Confederation. From the Founding Documents Podcast by Learn Out Loud. Size: 4.6 mb.

Causes of War: The Three-Fifths Compromise    [ video ]
A video about the Three-Fifths Compromise. From HowStuffWorks.

Constitutional Convention    [ video ]
A video from the Encyclopedia Britannica that depicts the discussions at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. Length: 18 min., 46 sec.

Gambling and Judicial Review: The Bill of Rights    [ video ]
A video discussing the justification for having three branches of government. From HowStuffWorks.

Our Constitution: A Conversation    [ video ]
In this video, Supreme Court justices Sandra Day O'Connor and Stephen Breyer discuss the importance of the Constitution and explain several basic principles of American constitutionalism. They answer student questions about separation of powers, the Court's modern relevance, federalism, liberty versus security, notable cases, decision-making in the Court. The link takes you to Annenberg's Sunnylands Classroom website, were the film can be watched in numerous file sizes, and where visitors can watch the film in numerous languages or read a transcript. Filmed in 2005. Length: 29 min., 7 sec.

Shaping the New Nation: The Articles of Confederation.    [ video ]
A video about the the Articles of Confederation. From the HowStuffWorks.

Shaping the New Nation: The Constitutional Convention    [ video ]
A video about the Constitutional Convention. From HowStuffWorks.

The Election Process: The Electoral College    [ video ]
A video about the Electoral College and how a president is elected. From HowStuffWorks.

The Ratification of the U.S. Constitution    [ audio ]
A radio dramatization of the ratification of the Constitution. From the You Are There!, a CBS radio show from the 1940s and 50s.

The U.S Constitution: The Constitutional Convention    [ video ]
A video about the Constitutional Convention. From HowStuffWorks.

Unit 2 Overview: We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution Level 3 Text    [ audio ]
Scholars Margaret Branson, Sue Leeson, and Scott Casper present Unit 2 of the new We the People student text. Size: 5.1 mb. Length: 5 min, 34 sec.

Virginia Ratifies the Constitution - 1788    [ audio ]
A radio dramatization of Virginia's ratification of the Constitution. From You Are There!, a CBS radio show from the 1940s and 50s. File size: 28.5 mb.

War Powers and Covert Action    [ video ]
In War Powers and Covert Action, video 2 of the The Constitution: The Delicate Balance video series, Gerald Ford, Bobby Inman and Edmund Muskie debate presidential war powers. Produced by Columbia University Seminars on Media and Society. From Annenberg Media's Lerner.org website. Registration and log-in required. Length: 57 min., 15 sec.

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