We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution, Level 3
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Howard Chandler Christy, Signing of the Constitution, Architect of the Capitol, House wing, east stairway
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Lesson 13 Primary Sources

The Fallacies of the Freeman Detected by a [Pennsylvania] Farmer

A discussion arguing that the proposed constitution does not form a federal government but a consolidated one, and questioning whether the benefits of the proposed constitution are worth surrendering states' rights.

An Old Whig No. 2

Anti-Federalist paper questioning the power that the necessary and proper clause gives to the federal government under the proposed constitution.

Brutus No. 1

Anti-Federalist argument for a federal republic with authority resting in the state governments.

Brutus No. 2

An Anti-Federalist paper arguing in favor of a bill of rights.

Brutus No. 7

An argument against a strong national government in favor of more power resting in the states. Brutus speaks specifically to the idea of taxation and government debt to fund protection and defense.

Centinel No. 5

Anti-Federalist paper questioning the power that the necessary and proper clause gives to the federal government under the proposed constitution.

Federal Farmer No. 11

Anti-Federalist paper suggesting improvements to the proposed organization of the legislative branch to increase representation and representativeness.

Federal Farmer No. 15

Anti-Federalist paper suggesting improvements to the proposed organization of the judicial branch.

Federal Farmer No. 17

An argument for a federal republic over what the author calls "consolidated government." The Federal Farmer claims that the proposed constitution would make all citizens subjects of the legislature.

Federal Farmer No. 18

An Anti-Federalist paper addressing the powers of state militias and federal armed forces, the relationship between bankruptcy and government seizures of property, and of a town that houses the government but is not part of any of the 13 states.

Federal Farmer No. 4

Anti-Federalist paper questioning the proposed constitution in the areas of the necessary and proper clause, taxation, the office of the vice president, popular sovereignty and the need for a bill of rights.

Federal Farmer No. 7

An Anti-Federalist essay, criticizing the proposed constitution and outlining the Federal Farmer's goals for future letters.

Federal Farmer No. 8

An Anti-Federalist argument for a federal republic with authority resting in the state governments.

Federalist No. 8

From Wikipedia: In this paper, Hamilton argues for the utility of the Union to the well-being of Americans, specifically addressing the negative consequences if the Union were to collapse and conflict arise between the states. It is titled, "Consequences of Hostilities Between the States."

Luther Martin's Speech to the Maryland House of Delegates 1789

Martin's argument that it is against the Articles of Confederation to create a new government.

Patrick Henry's Speech to the Virginia Ratifying Committee

Patrick Henry's warning to the Virginia ratifying committee against voting in favor of the proposed constitution.

Ratification of the Constitution by the state of North Carolina

The North Carolina Convention met from July 21 through August 4, 1788, but after debate agreed only to neither ratify or reject the Constitution, but did adopt a resolution containing a Declaration of Rights and a list of proposed Amendments to the Constitution on August 2, 1788. After the Constitution had been ratified by a sufficient number of states, the members of the convention reconvened and, apparently without further debate, ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789, and announced the linked declaration, which includes the resolution of August 2, 1788.

United States Bill of Rights

From Wikipedia: In the United States, the Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known. They were introduced by James Madison to the First United States Congress in 1789 as a series of articles, and came into effect on December 15, 1791, when they had been ratified by three quarters of the states.

United States Constitution

From Wikipedia: The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the United States. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of the United States of America and the federal government of the United States.

Lesson 13      What Was the Anti-Federalist Position in the Debate about Ratification?
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