The "Left Wing Manifesto" was a document by Benjamin Gitlow, used as the basis for his prosecution on anarchy charges by the state of New York. While the U.S. Supreme Court upheld his conviction, its opinion held for the first time that the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause protected personal rights from infringement by the states.
From Wikipedia: Civil Disobedience (Resistance to Civil Government) is an essay by Henry David Thoreau first published in 1849. It argues that people should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that people have a duty to avoid letting the government make them the agents of injustice.
From Wikipedia: Emile, or On Education is a treatise on the nature of education but also on the nature of man, written by Rousseau. It tackles fundamental political and philosophical questions about the relationship between the individual and society.
From Wikipedia: Released in English in 1627, this utopian novel was Bacon's creation of an ideal land where "generosity and enlightenment, dignity and splendor, piety and public spirit" were the commonly held qualities of its inhabitants.
A discussion arguing that the proposed constitution does not form a federal government but a consolidated one, and questioning whether the benefits of the proposed constitution are worth surrendering states' rights.
A collection of eighty-five essays advocating the ratification of the constitution proposed at the Philadelphia Convention, properly called The Federalist, written between October, 1787 and May, 1788 by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
From Wikipedia: The Prince is a political treatise by the Italian public servant and political theorist Niccolo Machiavelli. It was originally written in 1513, but not published until 1532, five years after Machiavelli's death. The Prince was one of the first works of modern philosophy, in which pragmatic ends, opposed to teleological concepts, are the purpose.
From Wikipedia: The Two Treatises of Government was published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke. The First Treatise attacks the patriotic state, and the Second Treatise outlines his thoughts on civil society based on natural rights and contract theory.
From Wikipedia: The Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms was a document issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 6, 1775, to explain why the thirteen colonies had taken up arms in what had become the Revolutionary War.
The Star Chamber was a court that heard criminal and civil cases against prominent Englishmen, who, it was believed, would not receive a fair trial in the regular courts. In 1641, it was abolished by Parliament after controversial incidents with religious dissenters.
From Wikipedia: The first Act of Supremacy granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy which is still the legal authority of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Royal Supremacy is specifically used to describe the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over religious ones, which validated Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn.
Hamilton's thoughts on Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution:
"The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish."
Franklin believed in the trade of printing as indispensable to his highest goals for society: the spread of knowledge and ideas necessary to self-governance. He laid out these views in his essay "An Apology for Printers."
The report of the Annapolis Convention of 1786, noting that delegates were unable to make sufficient progress toward a resolution, and called for a meeting the following May, which would be known as the Philadelphia Convention.
The Articles of Confederation were, in effect, the first constitution of the United States. Drafted in 1777 by the same Continental Congress that passed the Declaration of Independence, the articles established a "firm league of friendship" between and among the 13 states.
From Wikipedia: President Bill Clinton, was impeached by the House of Representatives on December 19, 1998. The House drafted a total of four articles of impeachment related to the Paula Jones lawsuit and Monica Lewinsky scandal. It was only the second impeachment of a president in American history, following the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in 1868.
From Wikipedia: The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany serves as the constitution of Germany. It was formally approved on May 8, 1949, and, with the signature of the Allies, came into effect on May 23, 1949, as the constitution of West Germany.
James Madison originally submitted 17 amendments to become the Bill of RIghts. All were passed by the House of Representatives, but only 12 were passed by the Senate and the states ratified 10 of them.
From Wikipedia: The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765-1769.
An act of British Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party, the Boston Port Act blockaded the Port of Boston, preventing the loading or shipping of any goods until restitutions were made for loss of customs duties to the crown and damages to the East India Company.
Anti-Federalist paper published in the Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer and Philadelphia Freeman's Journal, arguing that people a fear or anarchy is not enough reason to justify ratifying the Constitution.
William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England divides the history of English common law into four categories: rights of persons, rights of things, private wrongs (torts), and public wrongs (crimes). Written to be understood by non-lawyers, this work became an important source of legal information for the American colonists.
Montesquieu (Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brede et de Montesquieu) was a French nobleman and lawyer, recognized as one of greatest thinkers of Enlightenment. He first gained fame for a satire, the Persian Letters, in 1721, pointing out absurdities of modern European, especially French, life. He also published Considerations of the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and of their Decline (anonymously) in 1734. His masterpiece, The Spirit of the Laws, published 1748, was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by Catholic Church because of "liberal" views.
From Wikipedia: The Constitution of May 3, 1791 is generally regarded as Europe's first and the world's second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
From WIkipedia: The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the country of South Africa. It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Republic of South Africa, sets out the rights and duties of the citizens of South Africa, and defines the structure of the Government of South Africa.
The Constitution of the State of Alaska is the basic governing document of the State of Alaska, which was ratified in 1956 and took effect in 1959 when Alaska became the 50th state to join the United States.
From Wikipedia: The crime of seditious libel was defined and established in England during the 1606 case De Libellis Famosis by the Star Chamber. The case defined seditious libel as criticism of public persons, the government, or King.
Cicero's De Officiis is a profound meditation on morality and moral duty, including moral principles as applied to public life. The book has deeply influenced Western civilization since its writing in 44 BC. De Officiis was so influential that when the printing press was invented, it was the second book to be printed after the Bible.
The Declaration of Independence is a proclamation passed by Congress on July 2, 1776, and issued on July 4, announcing the separation of the "United Colonies" from Britain and the formation of a new nation, the United States of America. The document listed reasons for the separation and a philosophical argument in defense of the action.
From Wikipedia: The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American Colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire.
An Anti-Federalist paper addressing the powers of state militias and federal armed forces, the relationship between bankruptcy and government seizures of property, and of a town that houses the government but is not part of any of the 13 states.
Anti-Federalist paper questioning the proposed constitution in the areas of the necessary and proper clause, taxation, the office of the vice president, popular sovereignty and the need for a bill of rights.
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 10 is an essay by James Madison arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. It addresses the question of how to guard against "factions" with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community.
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 14 is an essay titled, "Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered" by James Madison addressing a major objection of the Anti-Federalists to the proposed Constitution: that the sheer size of the United States would make it impossible to govern justly as a single country.
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 37 is an essay by James Madison, published on January 11, 1788 discussing some of the political questions raised at the Constitutional Convention, such as the question of the authority of the state versus the liberty of the people.
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 42 is an essay by James Madison, contending that the grant of specific powers to the federal government actually operates to limit the power of the federal government to act with respect to the states.
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 48 is an essay by James Madison, building on Federalist No. 47 in which Madison argued for separation of powers; in this one he argues that the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government must not be totally divided.
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 71 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, titled, "The Duration in Office of the Executive," published on March 18, 1788. It is the fifth in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the executive branch.
From Wikipedia: The essay was published May 28, 1788 and was written to explicate and justify the structure of the judiciary under the proposed Constitution; it is the first of six essays by Hamilton on this issue. In particular, it addresses concerns by the Anti-Federalists over the scope and power of the federal judiciary, which would have comprised unelected, politically insulated judges that would be appointed for life.
From Wikipedia: In this paper, Hamilton argues for the utility of the Union to the well-being of Americans, specifically addressing the negative consequences if the Union were to collapse and conflict arise between the states. It is titled, "Consequences of Hostilities Between the States."
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 80 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton. Its title is "Powers of the Judiciary," and is the third in a series of six essays discussing the powers and limitations of the judicial branch.
From Wikipedia: Federalist No. 84, titled, "Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered," was written by Alexander Hamilton and asserted that the Bill of RIghts was not a necessary component of the proposed constitution.
From Wikipedia; The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution of France. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty, following the steps of the U.S.
The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 is an act of the English Parliament defining and strengthening habeas corpus, by which a detainee who has appealed to the judiciary must either be set free or have a charge brought against him.
Alexander Hamilton introduced a plan for a national government at the Philadelphia Convention on June 18, 1787. Hamilton's plan consisted of eleven resolutions. It advocated three branches for the national government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The Convention adjourned without discussion of his plan.
Andrew Johnson was impeached in 1868 after removing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from office and replacing him with Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas in violation of the Tenure of Office Act, a law that limited the president's ability to remove or appoint cabinet members without Senate approval. Johnson was charged with 11 articles of impeachment but was acquitted in the Senate.
The agreement between William Buckland and Thomas Mason granting Buckland would work for Mason in Virginia in exchange for transportation, food and drink, washing and lodging, as well as a salary of 20 pounds per year.
From Wikipedia: The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966, and in force from March 23, 1976. It commits parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.
From Wikipedia: The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 16, 1966, and in force from January 3, 1976. It commits parties to work toward the granting of economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) to individuals, including labor rights and rights to health, education, and an adequate standard of living.
John Locke's Second Treatise of Government (1690) was widely read by the colonists. Important ideas found in it (as well as in the works of English republican writers) are also to be found in the Declaration of Independence, especially his theories of natural rights and defense of violent revolution after "a long train of abuses" of power by rulers. Two verbatim phrases of Locke's are found in the Declaration.
From Wikipedia: The Letter from Birmingham Jail or Letter from Birmingham City Jail, is an open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King Jr., written from the city jail in Birmingham, Alabama, where he was confined after being arrested for his part in the Birmingham campaign.
Leviathan argues that humans without government live in a "state of nature," which is a "state of war" against all. Life in such conditions is "solitary, poore, nasty brutish, and short." Thus in a state of nature, all fear violent death; and violent death is what people fear most. To avoid violent death, they agree to set up a state with strict authority and the power to protect life. People agree to leave this state of nature through "social contract" and to give all power to the Leviathan state, which Hobbes characterized as a "mortal god." Hobbes was accused of atheism for the views he expressed in Leviathan, where Hobbes pilloried various theological ideas. The English Parliament asserted that Leviathan helped cause the plague of 1665 and the Great Fire of 1666. The book was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the Catholic Church because it undermined the theory of divine right of kings.
From Wikipedia: Magna Carta, is an English legal charter, originally issued in 1215. Magna Carta required King John to proclaim certain rights, respect certain legal procedures, and accept that his will could be restricted by the law.
From Wikipedia: The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. policy introduced on December 2, 1823, which said that further efforts by European governments to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed by the United States as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. In return, the United States would not interfere with existing European colonies nor in the internal concerns of European countries.
In this political treatise Montesquieu advocates the idea that political and legal institutions ought to reflect the social and geographical character of each particular community, that governments need not be permanent.
The New Jersey Plan was presented by William Paterson of New Jersey to the Constitutional
Convention in Philadelphia on June 15, 1787. It called for a one-house national legislature, in which each state would have equal representation. This arrangement would favor small states. The New Jersey Plan followed the framework of the Articles of Confederation and favored a weak national government.
The act enlarged the boundaries of the Province of Quebec and instituted reforms generally favorable to the French Catholic inhabitants of the region, although denying them an elected legislative assembly.
The North Carolina Convention met from July 21 through August 4, 1788, but after debate agreed only to neither ratify or reject the Constitution, but did adopt a resolution containing a Declaration of Rights and a list of proposed Amendments to the Constitution on August 2, 1788. After the Constitution had been ratified by a sufficient number of states, the members of the convention reconvened and, apparently without further debate, ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789, and announced the linked declaration, which includes the resolution of August 2, 1788.
The United States Citizenship and Immigration Cervices (USCIS) redesigned its naturalization test in 2008, concentrating on wider civic concepts rather than facts. Applicants must correctly answer six of ten questions drawn from a pool of 100.
From Wikipedia: The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire after the French and Indian War and to stabilize relations with the Native Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
From Wikipedia: The Stamp Act of 1765 was a tax imposed by the British Parliament on the American colonists requiring that many printed materials in the colonies carry a tax stamp in order to help pay for troops stationed in North America following the Seven Years' War.
This act of Parliament allowed the trials of royal officials to be moved to other colonies or back to Britain if it was thought that the official could not receive a fair trial in the original jurisdiction.
The Constitution is the supreme law of the United States that provides the framework for the government. The Constitution outlines the nation's institutions of government and the most important rights of the people. The document was created in 1787 during the Philadelphia Convention. The government created by the Constitution took effect on March 4, 1789.
From Wikipedia: Ac Act of the Parliament of England that was passed by the Long Parliament shortly after the impeachment and execution of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford in 1641 and before the English Civil War.
The writ was amended by the Habeas Corpus Act 1679.
The Meriam Report was a survey of conditions on Indian reservations in 23 states. Titled The Problem of Indian Administration, the report was called the most important treatise on Indian affairs since Helen Hunt Jackson's Century of Dishonor (1881).
From Wikipedia: The Truman Doctrine is a set of principles of U.S. inland policy created on March 12, 1947 by President Truman. In his speech to Congress, Truman declared that the United States, as "leader of the free world," must support democracy worldwide and fight against communism.
The Virginia Plan was presented by Virginia delegate Edmund Randolph to the Philadelphia Convention on May 29, 1787. It provided for a national government composed of three branches. It proposed a Congress of two houses, both of which would be based on proportional representation. The Virginia Plan favored a strong national government.at the Philadelphia Convention that provided for a national government composed of three branches. It proposed a Congress of two houses, both of which would be based on proportional representation. The Virginia Plan favored a strong national government.
From Wikipedia: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is the treaty that ended the Mexican-American war. The treaty provided for the Mexican Cession in which Mexico gave up 1.36 million square kilometers of its pre-war territory to the U.S.
From Wikipedia: The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ratified by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784 and by the King of Great Britain on April 9, 1784, formally ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Paris is an agreement signed on September 3, 1783, between Great Britain and the United States that ended the Revolutionary War. With the treaty, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. Also called the Peace of Paris.
From Wikipedia: In the United States, the Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known. They were introduced by James Madison to the First United States Congress in 1789 as a series of articles, and came into effect on December 15, 1791, when they had been ratified by three quarters of the states.
The supreme law of the United States that provides the framework for the government. The Constitution outlines the nation's institutions of government and the most important rights of the people. The document was created in 1787 during the Philadelphia Convention. The government created by the Constitution took effect on March 4, 1789.
From Wikipedia: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. The Declaration arose directly from the experience of World War II and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are respectfully entitled.
From Wikipedia: The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was written in 1779 by Thomas Jefferson to place a separation between church and state. In 1786, the Virginia General Assembly enacted the statute into the state's law.